Flight 93 National Memorial
This is the audio only described version of Flight 93 National Memorial’s official print brochure. Through text, color photographs and maps, the brochure tells the story of United Flight 93, which was hijacked on September 11, 2001 and crashed in a field in Pennsylvania. This crash site is now part of the National Park Service’s memorial commemorating this day and the people on Flight 93 who lost their lives.
Side one includes the names of the crew members and passengers on the flight, and a more detailed account through text and a map of the hijacking, flight pattern and crash. A photograph of the memorial site and the U.S. Capital are also included.
Through color photographs and text, the detailed account of the day and the recovery continue on side two of the brochure. Also included on side two is information about visiting the park, the nature of the park’s public private partnership and a map of the site.
PHOTO: the Place and the People
Description: The top half of side one of the brochure includes a color photograph of the site, text and the list of names of crew members and passengers.
At the bottom of the photograph, a quote reads: “A common field one day. A field of honor forever.”
Photo caption: Overlooking the crash site, the Visitor Center Complex, (pictured), provides a beautiful but solemn introduction to the memorial’s story. The Wall of Names can be seen in the distance at far left.
Photo description: On a fall day, the trees in the background of this photo are in the full range of color from brilliant orange to yellow, and red. The sky is blue. On the right side of the photo starting in the background and coming towards us in the foreground are two large gray stone walls that run parallel and curve on an angle. Nestled within the middle section of these two walls, is a concrete and glass building, which is the park's visitor center. To the left of the structure is an open field of green, yellow and brown grasses. To the right of the structure is a parking lot in the upper right hand corner with a few cars, some surrounding trees, and another concrete and glass building in the distance. This building is the park's Learning Center.
Photo credit: copyright by Paul Murdoch Architects and Biolinia
TEXT: the List of Crew Members
- Captain, Jason M. Dahl
- First Officer, LeRoy Homer
- Flight Attendants:
- Lorraine G. Bay
- Sandy Waugh Bradshaw
- Wanda Anita Green
- CeeCee Ross Lyles
- Deborah Jacobs Welsh
TEXT: the List of Passengers
- Christian Adams
- Todd M. Beamer
- Alan Anthony Beaven
- Mark Bingham
- Deora Frances Bodley
- Marion R. Britton
- Thomas E. Burnett, Jr.
- William Joseph Cashman
- Georgine Rose Corrigan
- Patricia Cushing
- Joseph DeLuca
- Patrick Joseph Driscoll
- Edward Porter Felt
- Jane C. Folger
- Colleen L. Fraser
- Andrew (Sonny) Garcia
- Jeremy Logan Glick
- Kristin Osterholm White Gould
- Lauren Catuzzi Grandcolas and Unborn Child
- Donald Freeman Greene
- Linda Gronlund
- Richard J. Guadagno
- Toshiya Kuge
- Hilda Marcin
- Waleska Martinez
- Nicole Carol Miller
- Louis J. Nacke II
- Donald Arthur Peterson
- Jean Hoadley Peterson
- Mark David Rothenberg
- Christine Ann Snyder
- John Talignani
- Honor Elizabeth Wainio
TEXT: September 11, 2001
September 11, 2001, morning. Four commercial airliners are hijacked by al Qaeda terrorists in a planned attack against the United States. Two are flown into the World Trade Center’s twin towers in New York City. A third is flown into the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia. A fourth plane, United Flight 93, a Boeing 757 bound from Newark, New Jersey, for San Francisco, California, is delayed 25 minutes before takeoff.
After 46 minutes flying, when over eastern Ohio, hijackers in first class attack at 9 28 a.m., incapacitating the captain and first officer. Hijackers turn Flight 93 southeast, headed for Washington DC, most likely the US Capitol (below).
Just before 10 am the plane is seen flying low and erratically over southwestern Pennsylvania. At 10 O 3 a.m. it crashes, upside down, at 563 miles per hour into this Somerset County field. There are no survivors. All 33 passengers, seven crew members, and four hijackers are killed.
MAP: Flight Path Map
Map caption: Charting the action of the passengers and crew. This flight map depicts the delayed takeoff and then the hijacking of Flight 93 by terrorists. Six minutes of struggle kept the airliner from reaching its symbolic target in the Nation’s Capital.
Map description: This color illustrative map charts Flight 93’s path. Using a bold red line, the plane starts in Newark, New Jersey, crosses into Pennsylvania and then Ohio. Once in the northeastern portion of Ohio, the plane doubles back southeast and returns, crossing into the northern panhandle of West Virginia and then back into Pennsylvania, ending at the impact site in Somerset County, Pennsylvania in the southwestern portion of the state.
The map is also annotated with text, detailing the sequential events of Flight 93 and the other September 11, 2001 events. The bordering states and bodies of water on the map include: New York, West Virginia, Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, the Atlantic Ocean and Lake Erie. Following is the text of the annotated timeline. Following this list is the timeline text paired with more description and explanations of the flight path.
- 8:42 A.M. Flight 93 takeoff, Newark, New Jersey
- 8:46 A.M. Flight 11 strikes North Tower, World Trade Center
- 9:03 A.M. Flight 175 strikes South Tower, World Trade Center
- 9:28 A.M. Flight 93 Probable time terrorist takeover
- 9:37 A.M. Flight 77 strikes Pentagon
- 9:57 A.M. Flight 93 Passengers and crew begin struggle for control of plane
- 10:03 A.M. Flight 93 Crash at 563 mph Somerset County, PA
Flight 93 begins its flight at 8:42 A.M. from Newark. Newark is located in New Jersey on the east coast and the right-hand side middle of the map. Four minutes later at 8:46 A.M., Flight 11 strikes the North Tower of the World Trade Center in New York City. The bold red line representing Flight 93 continues westward over Pennsylvania. At 9:03 A.M., Flight 175 strikes the South Tower of the World Trade Center in New York City. As the bold red line crosses into Ohio at 9:28 A.M., the terrorists aboard Flight 93 take over the plane. Flight 93 deviates from its planned route to San Francisco indicated by a black dotted line and turns sharply to the south then southeast making a U turn over northeast Ohio located on the upper far left of the map. Flight 93 continues southeast toward Washington D.C. At 9:37 A.M., Flight 77 strikes the Pentagon. Flight 93 continues southeast flying over West Virginia's panhandle and enters Pennsylvania. By 9:57 A.M., the passengers and crew struggle to take control of the plane. This struggle continues for six minutes ending at 10:03 A.M. with the plane crashing at 563 miles per hour in Somerset County, Pennsylvania located almost directly in center of the map. The plane was only 18 minutes flying time to the U.S. Capitol. This distance is indicated on the map by a black dotted line ending with a dot marking Washington, D.C. Washington D.C., which is located on the lower right/southeastern side of the map.
PHOTO: U.S. Capitol
Photo description:Taken at a distance and from above, this color photograph is of the U.S. Capitol Building. The building is Neoclassical in style, inspired by Greek and Roman designs. Sitting on a slight hilltop, the building has tall columns, white marble and symmetrical shapes throughout. In the center of the building and adorning this landmark is a three tiered, domed roof, which rises above the rest of the building’s rooftop. On top of the dome is a figure, which is known as the Statue of Freedom. In the foreground lies a majestic lawn of grass and trees. In the background are other Federal buildings. The U.S. Capitol Building is home of the United States Congress, making it the most likely target of Flight 93. Photo credit: Copyright by Library of Congress, Carol Highsmith Collection
TEXT: America Attacked!
Side two of the print brochure continues to detail Flight 93’s story. The top half of the brochure includes text and six photographs of the surrounding area, pieces of the plane and the roadside tributes to the passengers in an impromptu memorial. The bottom half includes three photographs of the site today, a map and text. This portion focuses on information about the memorial and planning your visit.
TEXT: on Board and on the Ground
What happened on board Flight 93—why it crashed here and why it did not strike its target—revealed itself as a story of heroic action. When the terrorist hijackers took over the plane, passengers and crew began phoning family, friends, and authorities to report the hijacking. Their calls—13 people placed 37 calls—told them of the World Trade Center and Pentagon attacks. Their plane, they now realized, was part of a planned attack. Passengers and crew then made a collective decision, by vote, to rush the terrorists and try to retake the plane.
Additional text and three photo descriptions follow:
- Photo caption: The smoke plume from the crash explosion was photographed by a nearby resident. September 11, 2001, marked the first time that terrorists used commercial airliners as weapons to destroy symbolic targets, commit mass murder, and spread fear. Al Qaeda had targeted the World Trade Center, commerce, Pentagon, military; and U.S. Capitol government. Photo description: On the far right of this photo is a large red barn and smaller red outbuilding. On the far left located upon a tree lined hilltop is a second barn, white in color. Central to the image is a billowing dark gray ominous cloud of smoke rising in a clear blue cloudless sky. Photo credit: Valencia McClattachey
- Photo caption: Hay bales covered with tributes from the families of the passengers and crew formed an early, informal memorial even as the FBI recovery work and search for evidence continued at the crash site. Photo description: This photo depicts tribute items left by family members of the passengers and crew of Flight 93. Running diagonally across the image right to left is a row of hay bales. Placed on these hay bales are a vast variety of tributes: flowers, wreaths, photographs, stuffed animals and wooden angels. A yellow tape barrier is in the far left. An American Flag has been placed almost within the center of the tributes and hay bales. In the distance is the crash site where men and women search for evidence. Past the field, in the background are bluish hills and a green forest. Photo credit: copyright by James Bee
- Photo description: Underneath the text and photos on the top half of the brochure is another photograph of the recovery scene. Six people, two women and four men, are at the crash site. Four of these individuals wear white hazmat suits that include high-waisted white paints and white foot booties covering their shoes. The other two wear yellow hazmat suites that cover their upper and lower bodies and blue booties that cover their shoes. They are near the crater at the crash site of Flight 93. Mounds of dirt are in the background along with a scorched tree line. Scattered debris surrounds the group. With the exception of one woman, they look towards the crash site. The other woman walks away from the site. She wears a protective mask. There is a yellow tape barrier in the foreground lying in the grass. Photo credit: copyright by Dale Sparks
TEXT: the Recovery
Recovered from the crash site, the cockpit voice recorder captured the shouts, thumps, crashes, and breaking of glass and plates. The 9/11 Commission reported that the hijackers, although remaining in control of the plane, must have judged that the passengers and crew were mere seconds from overcoming them. To continued sounds of the counterattack, Flight 93 crashed into this field.
The crash site is 18 minutes flying time from Washington, DC. The action of unarmed passengers and crew thwarted and defeated the terrorists’ plan.
Additional text for three photos and their descriptions follow:
Three-photo caption: The first volunteer fire fighters on the scene and local residents stand by the smoldering crater 15 minutes after the crash. At the direction of the coroner, the crater was backfilled. A piece of fuselage was one of the largest objects recovered. The cockpit voice recorder gave details of the diverted flight.
The cockpit voice recorder became important evidence for the FBI in this, its largest-ever investigation. This was the only voice recorder recovered from the four hijacked aircraft to yield information. This “black box” gave critical information about the aircraft’s final moments and the struggle for control. Other evidence found here would enable the FBI to trace how the terrorist attacks were financed.
- Photo description—Firefighters and Residents at the Crash Site: Local residents and firefighters stand behind the impact site. In the foreground and center is a v-shaped charred area outlining where the plane crashed. The area is smoldering with smoke rising from the ground. Trees line the background. In front of the trees is a lone red fire engine truck. Photo credit: copyright by Mark Stahl
- Photo description—Fuselage: A section the main body of the aircraft is featured in this photo. The section of the plane lies on green leaves and branches of hemlock. The section includes two distinct window portals and a section of the plane wall and ceiling above them. It looks as if this section was a crumpled piece of paper that has been unfolded. The metal material is brownish gray, probably from the heat and fire. It was the largest section of the plane to be found. Photo credit: FBI
- Photo description—Voice Recorder: The cockpit voice recorder that was recovered at the crash site sits among the dirt and debris. The damaged metal box is orange and white. In black letters parts of the words "Flight Recorder Do Not Open" are visible. Photo credit: FBI
TEXT: the Memorial
Flight 93 National Memorial is the nation’s memorial to the passengers and crew of Flight 93. The Visitor Center Complex, on the hill above the crash site, introduces their story. Below, Memorial Plaza borders the crash site, which consists of the impact site (marked by a boulder) and the debris field.
The fields and woods beyond are the final resting place for the passengers and crew; their remains are still present.
Three color renderings, which are realistic computer-generated illustrations of the site, are described below. These renderings are credited and copyrighted by Paul Murdoch Architects and Biolina
- Illustration caption: Allée (formal walkway) and 40 Memorial Groves. Illustration description: This formal walkway is a tree-lined pathway. The trees are Sunset Red Maples. Their fall leaves, still on the trees, are vibrant red and orange. In the foreground are two people, one standing and one sitting looking left toward the crash site. On the far right-hand side of the image are three visitors, two walking down the pathway and one standing in a field of golden grass. In the far distance is the park's visitor center.
- Illustration caption: The Future Tower of Voices will have 40 wind chimes. Illustration description: In the background, a tower rises above rows of evergreen trees. In the foreground is a grassy field of green and yellow. To the far left are colorful shrubs in shades of purple and pink. A trail winds through the trees and exits on the far right.
- Illustration caption: Flight Path Walkway and Visitor Center Complex. Illustration description: Outside on a fall day, the Flight Path Walkway cuts through the image. On either side, there is a colorful array of trees and shrubs of orange, red, yellow, brown and green. In the distance are the towering walls of the park visitor center. To the far right is a concrete and glass structure, which is the Learning Center. Visitors sit by and stroll along the pathway.
Map description: This map shows the entire park, including the Flight Path, roads, trails, parking and restrooms, Visitor Center Complex, Memorial Plaza, Visitor Shelter, Wall of Names, Impact Site/boulder, Hemlock Grove, Debris Field, and Future Tower of Voices.
The map is oriented with north pointing upwards and slightly to the right. Coming from the northwest and top left side of the map is an arrow that points south and slightly east into the crash site. The arrow is labelled “Flight Path.”
The park boundary is indicated by a solid black line, with the entrance located off US Route 30/Lincoln Highway. The town of Somerset is 14 miles southwest and Bedford is 24 miles to the east on US Route 30/Lincoln Highway.
The entrance to the park is located in the upper right corner of the map and northern section of the park. The entrance is off of US Route 30, which then connects to Approach Road. Approach Road serpentines two and a half miles to the Visitor Center, which is located on the west side and left-center of the map.
The Visitor Center, Wall of Names, Impact Site, and Hemlock Grove are all located on the Flight Path of Flight 93. The Debris Field and Visitor Shelter are located east and to the right of the Flight Path on the Memorial Plaza. The Visitor Center Complex and Visitor Shelter are connected by Ring Road. Ring Road follows the Allee (formal walkway) and 40 Memorial Groves one mile to the Visitor Shelter.
When exiting the park, visitors are encouraged to use Return Road, which connects Ring and Approach Roads. Return Road is only open during the summer months.
TEXT: A Partnership Park
Congress designated the crash site as a national memorial in 2002. Paul Murdoch Architects and Nelson Byrd Woltz Landscape Architects won the international design competition in 2005. The Memorial has been created through a public-private partnership including the Families of Flight 93, Friends of Flight 93, National Park Foundation, and National Park Service. To learn how you can support the memorial, visit www.flight93friends.org.
TEXT: Visiting the Memorial
The Visitor Center Complex includes exhibits, a viewing window, a bookstore, the Flight Path Walkway, and Overlook. Call or check the park website for programs at The Learning Center. The complex connects with the Memorial Plaza by paved road and walkway.
You can also explore the story of Flight 93 through outdoor exhibits, a cell phone tour, ranger-led programs, and conversations with rangers and park volunteers.
TEXT: While You Are Here
- Water is only available at the Visitor Center Complex
- Be alert to changing weather
- Stay on walkways and roads
- Pets allowed only in parking areas
- For firearms regulations ask a ranger or check the park website
- We strive to make our facilities, services, and programs accessible to all
- Thank you for helping to honor and respect the story of Flight 93
OVERVIEW: More Information
- Mailing address: Flight 93 National Memorial; PO Box 911; Shanksville, PA; 15560
- Phone number: 814-893-6322
- Web address: www.nps.gov/flni
- Flight 93 National Memorial is one of over 400 parks in the National Park System. To learn more about national parks, visit www.nps.gov.
- The print brochure was printed on recycled paper.