Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park

Audio Available:

OVERVIEW: About this audio-described brochure

Welcome to the audio-described version of Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park's official print brochure. Through text and audio descriptions of photos, illustrations, and maps, this version interprets the two-sided color brochure that Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park visitors receive. The brochure explores the history of the park, some of its highlights, and information for planning your visit. This audio version lasts about 50 minutes which we have divided into 25 sections, as a way to improve the listening experience. Sections 1 to 14 cover the front of the brochure and include information regarding the history of the battles, while sections 15 to 25 cover the back of the brochure which consists of a large park wayfinding map, a small inset map of Point Park, and information on how to tour the park. 

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OVERVIEW: Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park

Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park, located in Georgia and Tennessee, is part of the National Park Service, within the Department of the Interior. The approximately 9,077 acre park is situated 9 miles south of Chattanooga, Tennessee, at the edge of the Cumberland Plateau. This park, established in 1890, is the first national military park created in the United States. Each year, approximately one million visitors come to enjoy the unique experiences that only can be had at Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park. We invite you to explore the park's monuments, markers,  and cannon. Place your hands on the bronze and iron guns used to re-write American history during the Civil War's second deadliest battle. For those seeking to learn more about the park during their visit, a self-guided cell phone tour can be taken at Chickamauga Battlefield and tactile maps of the region can also be found at the Chickamauga Battlefield and Lookout Mountain Battlefield Visitor Centers. To find out more about what resources might be available or to contact the park directly, visit the "Accessibility" and "More Information" sections at the end of this audio-described brochure.

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OVERVIEW: Front side of brochure

The brochure's front side is divided into three sections. The top third of the page has two images; the left image shows US soldiers firing at Confederate soldiers from behind log barricades, while the right image shows Confederates, with bayonets fixed on their muskets, repelling a US attack on Missionary Ridge. In the middle is the story, told in text, maps, and a Civil War timeline. The bottom third of the page contains text and images pertaining to personal stories related to the Battles of Chickamauga and of Chattanooga. Descriptions and text are presented under their own sections.


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IMAGES and TEXT: Chickamauga

DESCRIPTION:

In the image's center, Union soldiers of the 21st Ohio Infantry, clad in dusty blue uniforms, crouch behind log barricades, periodically popping up to frantically fire their five shot revolving rifles, to your right, into the faces of oncoming Confederate troops. The Southern soldiers make their way, right to left, up Horseshoe Ridge's difficult slope, around large trees, slipping, at times, on the fallen leaves in front of the Union soldiers. The Confederates yell and waive their flag while attacking. The Union defenders are running low on ammunition. In the lower left corner of the image, officers, one mounted, and the other on foot, discuss their next moves as another soldier carries black cartridge boxes to those needing more bullets on the firing line.  

CAPTION:

Union soldiers fire from Horseshoe Ridge during the Battle of Chickamauga.

CREDIT:

From the painting "To the Last Round: The 21st Ohio at Horseshoe Ridge," by Keith Rocco, Tradition Studios. 

QUOTE:

"It seemed as though a terrible cyclone was sweeping over the earth, driving everything before it." – Col. Benjamin Scribner, 38th Indiana Infantry, USA



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IMAGES and TEXT: Chattanooga

DESCRIPTION:

In the image's upper right corner, on a cold, cloud covered winter day, Lookout Mountain looms in the far distance. Confederate Major General Patrick Cleburne stands among his men on the scraggly slope of Missionary Ridge. He gazes down the ridge to your right, clutching his sword in his right hand, yet standing defiantly in the face of Union attackers. His men encircle him, mostly outfitted in brown uniforms, though some are wearing heavy blue overcoats, captured from their Union counterparts. Many of the Confederates have their bayonets affixed to their muskets and are thrusting them down the ridge toward the Union soldiers, who are not visible in the painting. A bugler stands just behind the general and to your left, blowing what is likely the order to "charge" into the advancing army. Directly behind Cleburne is a color bearer, hoisting a blue square flag, with white borders and a blue oval center aloft on a pole. Other officers, on horseback, face one another, discussing important matters, in the image's upper left corner. 

CAPTION:

Confederate soldiers defend their position on Missionary Ridge.

CREDIT:

From the painting "On Empty Rifles," by Rick Reeves. 

QUOTE:

"Still they advance, and still we shoot them down, and still they come." – Capt. Samuel T. Foster, 24th Texas Cavalry (Dismounted), CSA.


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TEXT: The campaign for Chattanooga: Death knell of the confederacy?

President Abraham Lincoln believed that taking Chattanooga was as important as taking Richmond. Why was a small town of 2,500 as important as the capital of the Confederacy? The small city lay on the banks of the Tennessee River where it cut through the Appalachian Mountains, allowing four major railroads to converge (see map at right). If the Union captured Chattanooga, it could cripple Confederate supply lines and strike at the industrial heart of the Confederacy.

In the summer of 1863, Confederate Gen. Braxton Bragg and his Army of Tennessee controlled Chattanooga. But Union Gen. William Rosecrans skillfully moved his Army of the Cumberland south, across the Tennessee River and over Sand Mountain and Lookout Mountain, threatening the Confederates from behind. By early September, Bragg realized he had been outmaneuvered. The Confederate Army had no choice but to abandon the city and its remaining residents.

Rosecrans thought the Confederates were retreating toward Atlanta, prompting him and his army to pursue the gray-clad soldiers into Georgia. However, the Confederates had a surprise of their own. Bragg, now heavily reinforced, was not going to give up Chattanooga without a fight. At the Battle of Chickamauga, little went as planned and thousands of men lost their lives. Yet, it would be late November before the city’s fate would be decided—and perhaps that of the Confederacy.

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MAP: Chattanooga Area

DESCRIPTION:

This map is situated in the brochure's center section, to the right of the "Death Knell of the Confederacy" text. It shows the mountains, rivers, railroads, and important place names associated with the 1863 Campaign for Chattanooga. The map is divided into three state areas. Southeast Tennessee, Northeast Alabama, and Northwest Georgia are outlined by white borders, while Chattanooga near the map's center, is shown as a prominent yellow dot. In the map's upper left corner is a compass rose indicating north is to the map's top and an arrow along the railroad points off the map to Nashville as the rail line cuts through the Cumberland Plateau toward the map's center . Below the plateau, the railroad connects with another in Stevenson, Alabama, marked with a yellow dot, and coming from the lower left corner of the map, indicated by another arrow pointing to Memphis, via Huntsville, Alabama, outside the map's boundary. As those railroads leave Stevenson, Alabama, situated in the map's left center, they continue to the northeast, through Bridgeport, Alabama, and into Chattanooga, Tennessee. The Tennessee River and Sand Mountain are both located below, and to the left of the yellow dot, indicating Bridgeport's location. However, as the rail road moves out of Bridgeport, to the upper right and toward Tennessee, it crosses the Tennessee River, which is now located above the rail line. These rail lines end in Chattanooga, again, indicated by a yellow dot near the map's center. The famed Lookout Mountain begins just south of Chattanooga, across the Tennessee River and runs to the southwest, toward the map's lower left corner, into Georgia and Alabama.  From Chattanooga, one of the railroads, as well as the Tennessee River, move to the northeast, toward Knoxville, Tennessee, indicated by an arrow in the upper right corner of the map. Leaving Chattanooga, moving to the southeast, is another railroad, passing through Ringgold, Georgia, and Dalton, Georgia, eventually toward Atlanta, indicated by an arrow pointing to the lower right corner of the map.  

CREDIT:

NPS.


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MAP: Gaining Control of the South

DESCRIPTION:

This is a light colored map showing the southeastern United States. It shows the different "theater's" of battle as divided by the Union and Confederate armies. 

The Western Theater is light red shaded through much of Tennessee, Mississippi, and Alabama, as well as portions of Georgia, Kentucky, South Carolina, and North Carolina. Cities included in the Western Theater, and indicated on the map, are Cairo, Illinois, Memphis, Tennessee, Corinth, Mississippi, Vicksburg, Mississippi, Nashville, Tennessee, Chattanooga, Tennessee, Mobile, Alabama, Atlanta, Georgia, Columbia, South Carolina, and Raleigh, North Carolina. Rivers included in this theater and on the map are the Mississippi and the Ohio Rivers. 

The Eastern Theater is purple shaded through parts of North Carolina, Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Maryland and include the cities of Richmond and Washington, D.C.

CAPTION:

Armies in the western theater fought for control between the Mississippi River and the Appalachians. After Chattanooga, the western theater expanded toward the eastern theater, which centered around the Union and Confederate capitals

CREDIT:

NPS

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TIMELINE: Western Theater, 1861 - 1865

1861

Confederates violate Kentucky’s neutrality. October

Confederates move to suppress Unionists in eastern Tennessee. November


1862

Union captures forts Donelson and Henry in Tennessee. February

Union victories, Shiloh and Stones River, TN. April, December


1863

Union captures Vicksburg, MS. July

Confederates rout Union at Chickamauga, GA and begin siege of Chattanooga, TN Sept. 18–20

Union defeats Confederacy at Chattanooga, opening way to Georgia. November 23–25


1864

Union victories, Kennesaw Mountain and Atlanta, GA. June, July


1865

Confederate Army of Tennessee surrenders in NC. April

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TIMELINE: Eastern Theater, 1861 - 1865

1861

Confederates bombard Fort Sumter, SC; war begins. April

Confederate victory, Battle of First Manassas, VA. July


1862

Union victory, Antietam, MD. September

Confederate victory, Fredericksburg, VA. December


1863

Lincoln issues Emancipation Proclamation. January

Confederate victory, Chancellorsville, VA. May

Union victory, Gettysburg, PA. July


1864

Siege of Richmond and Petersburg, VA; Lincoln re-elected. June, November


1865

Confederate Army of Northern Virginia surrenders at Appomattox, VA; Lincoln assassinated. April

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TEXT: The Battle of Chickamauga

BATTLE MAP

DESCRIPTION:

This map shows the general troop movements during the Battle of Chickamauga's third day, September 20, 1863. The map is light gray with various roads indicated by dark gray lines, running in multiple directions, fields, indicated by white squares, dotting the map, and West Chickamauga Creek, in the lower right corner of the map, indicated by a curvy blue line. In the map's upper left corner, there is a compass rose, pointing to the top of the map, indicating north, and a graphic scale (ruler) just below the compass rose, showing the distance of 1 mile. The map is cut in half by LaFayette Road. On the road's left side, is primarily the blue blocks of General William Rosecrans' Union Army, while General Braxton Bragg's Confederate Army is indicated by red blocks, mostly on the road's right side. Lightened, red arrows show the Confederate attack from right of LaFayette Road to left of LaFayette Road. 

CAPTION:

Sept. 20, 1863.

CREDIT:

NPS.


RELATED TEXT:

For thousands of Union and Confederate soldiers, their hopes hinge on controlling Chattanooga—the “gateway” to the Confederacy. Yet, in mid-September, they meet in the peaceful farm fields of north Georgia, along a tranquil creek named Chickamauga.

September 18

Surprise, confusion, and hard fighting replace the well-laid plans of General Bragg, who hoped to block LaFayette Road and cut the Union’s route to Chattanooga. As darkness falls, Bragg is still confident he can continue his plans and stop the Union Army in the morning. However, General Rosecrans moves his troops north throughout the night, a move that could turn the tide of battle.

September 19

Early in the morning, Union troops stumble into Confederates, who they presumed to be farther south. Both sides exchange fire all morning, leaving fields and woods littered with dead and wounded soldiers. The fighting spreads southwest, yet neither side has gained a clear advantage. During the night, Confederate reinforcements arrive, while Union troops fortify their positions.

September 20

Fighting begins when Confederates attack Union fortifications on the battlefield’s northern end. This forces Rosecrans to shift troops, accidentally creating a gap in the center of his line. By chance, Confederates swarm through, sweeping away Rosecrans.

Retreating Union soldiers make a heroic stand on Horseshoe Ridge, but only darkness saves their army.

Siege of the City Begins

Rosecrans’s army withdraws into Chattanooga while Confederates occupy key ground surrounding the city, including Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge. The stage is set to starve the Union Army into submission. They and the remaining residents endure a hungry month before General Ulysses S. Grant and reinforcements arrive to help open a supply line into the city.

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TEXT: Battles for Chattanooga

BATTLE MAP

DESCRIPTION:

This colored battlefield map shows the city of Chattanooga in the center. It is positioned with the top of the map facing North. On the East (your right) side of the map, the Confederate lines are are blocked by small red squares, with wavy lines just to their left, indicating fortifications. These line up in a northeast to southwest pattern, running from the top right toward the middle left of your map along the top of Missionary Ridge. Moving out of Chattanooga, slightly to the right of center, are blue squares, marking the Union lines. These squares are being shown as moving to the right with the use of large blue arrows. They are moving toward the Confederate blocks on Missionary Ridge. This will signify the last battle for control of Chattanooga, the Battle of Missionary Ridge, on November 25, 1863. 

CAPTION:

Sept. - Nov. 1863.

CREDIT:

NPS.


RELATED TEXT:

In late October, the Union uses darkness to silently float past Confederates on Lookout Mountain. Then, in a rare night battle near Wauhatchie, they win control of Lookout Valley and secure their new supply route, the “Cracker Line.” Chattanooga is still up for grabs.

November 23

Thousands of Union soldiers march out of Chattanooga. Like a great blue wave, they crash around Confederate-held Orchard Knob, a small hill between the city and Missionary Ridge. The Southerners flee, providing General Grant a strategic view of his next goal, the ridge. During the night, Bragg reinforces his line on Missionary Ridge.

November 24

The Union intends to take Missionary Ridge but mistakenly assaults a hill to the north. They discover their mistake too late to attack the ridge that day. Their diversionary tactic—attacking fog-enshrouded Lookout Mountain—becomes the famous “Battle Above the Clouds” that sweeps the Confederates off the mountain and toward Missionary Ridge.

November 25

Confederates successfully defend both ends of Missionary Ridge. Grant orders an attack against entrenchments centered at the base of the ridge. Finding little resistance there, and without orders, the recently defeated Army of the Cumberland continues charging up the rocky slopes and forces Bragg’s army from the summit. Confederate troops retreat south into Georgia.

The War Continues

The rivers, rails, and roads of Chattanooga are firmly in Union hands. The city is transformed into a supply and communications base for Gen. William T. Sherman’s 1864 Atlanta Campaign, which will begin in the spring. Disheartened Confederates wonder: Is the fall of Chattanooga truly “the death knell of the Confederacy?”

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IMAGES and TEXT: The Soldiers

IMAGE 1 of 4: Family

DESCRIPTION:

This is a black and white oval image, encased by a square, brass case, of a Union sergeant, his wife, and his child. Tall three are seated and facing the camera. The background is mostly plain and devoid of any items. The soldier sits on your left, with his right leg crossing his left leg and his right hand in his lap. He wears light pants and a dark coat with three light stripes on his shoulder, indicating his rank as sergeant. His blue coat has shiny brass buttons as well. He sternly peers into the camera. He wears mutton chops and has somewhat fluffy hair. 

His child sits in the image's center, between the parents. He is wearing a loose fitting jacket. The child's hair is combed up. 


On the image's right side, the soldier's wife sits with her hands in her lap, has a hoop-skirt dress on with a wavy line pattern and a white collar closed by a clasped broach. She has a stern look, facing the camera, with no facial expressions. Her dark hair is pulled back, slick, and is parted down the center. 

CREDIT:

Courtesy Charles Darden.


IMAGE 2 of 4: Two Soldiers

DESCRIPTION:

This is a black and white photograph. Confederate Sergeant A. M. Chandler of Company F, 44th Mississippi Infantry Regiment, sits on the left as you view the image. The clean-shaven soldier stoically glares at the camera with piercing eyes and no smile. He is dressed in a gray uniform with dark cuffs and a dark, turned down collar. The top three buttons of his uniform jacket are unbuttoned, showing a white shirt. He is also wearing a military cap, also referred to as a kepi. It is gray in color with a dark leather bill. He also is holding a large bowie knife in his right hand and a revolver in his left, while another revolver is tucked the leather belt he has around his waist. 


On the right of the photo, Silas Chandler, one of the enslaved African Americans owned by the Chandler family sits next to A. M. Chandler. He too is clean-shaven and stares into the camera. He has no smile. Silas is wearing a gray uniform as well, and his head is crowned with a wide-brimmed, floppy hat, often referred to as a slouch hat. he has a leather strap across his chest, likely connecting to a canteen. He holds a large, bowie knife in is right hand, has a pepper box pistol tucked into his coat, and, which is left hand, is holding a portion of a shotgun that is resting upon his lap and A. M. Chandler's lap. 

CREDIT:

Library of Congress


IMAGE 3 of 4: Group of Soldiers

DESCRIPTION:

This black and white photo is of eight Confederate soldiers lined up, all dress in gray frock coats with brass buttons, and dark trousers. Most of their coats are only buttoned at the top, showing their differing colored shirts. Some are clean-shaven, while at least two wear beards. They all gaze toward the camera with no facial expressions. These are likely captured members of the 20th Tennessee Infantry. 

CREDIT:

The Carter House


IMAGE 4 of 4: On a Cliff

DESCRIPTION:

This is a black and white photograph framed by an elaborate brass case with swirls and ridges. Four US soldiers pose on a large rock outcropping, called Point Lookout, on the northern tip of Lookout Mountain. in the background, you can see a portion of Moccasin Bend, a peninsula created by the winding Tennessee River, which is also visible. Three of the soldiers pose on the main portion of the rock. The soldier to your right, is on the rock's tip and wears a blue military frock coat, light pants tucked into mud spattered boots, and a black slouch hat. His right had is upon his hip as this bearded soldier peers off the ledge into the distance. His left hand rests upon the right shoulder of the soldier in the center.  In the center, a soldier sits, facing the camera. he also wears a blue coat, light pants, and slouch hat. His left hand rests upon the knee of the soldier in the right side of the photo. The soldier on the right side, reclines back on the rock, his legs cross, leaning on his left elbow. He, like the others, wears a dark coat, light pants, and a slouch hat. In the foreground, a soldier stands upon a small rock ledge carved out of the larger rock the other soldiers are upon. This clean-shaven soldier, dress exactly like the others, leans his left arm upon the large boulder and glares aimlessly into the camera's lens. 

CREDIT:

Library of Congress / Royan Linn

RELATED TEXT:

Young men opposing one another across the battle lines fought for different reasons. Many from the North fought to preserve the Union or abolish slavery, while those from the South struggled to retain slavery or defend their homes and families. These convictions brought these soldiers here, where confusion and chaos reigned in the mountains and forests surrounding the battlefields. Often, soldiers reacted to the sights and sounds unfolding around them rather than following orders. When veterans later “suitably marked” the battlegrounds, they decided not to place monuments to generals. Instead, they honored the soldiers, whose actions decided the battles of Chickamauga and Chattanooga. 

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IMAGES and TEXT: The Generals

IMAGE 1 of 3: Braxton Bragg

DESCRIPTION:

This black and white oval image is bust of Confederate General Braxton Bragg facing to your left. Visible is the top portion of his gray jacket, lined with two rows of brass buttons on the chest. His coat's collar stands around his neck with the insignia of three stars encircled by a wreath, denoting his rank as general. He has a full beard, which is peppered gray and dark. His hair is parted, yet falls over his left ear. He stars passively to your left, not looking directly into the camera. His fluffy eyebrows meet in the center of his nose, creating the impression that he has only one brow. 

CREDIT:

Confederate Memorial Hall Museum


IMAGE 2 of 3: William Rosecrans

DESCRIPTION:

This black and white oval image is a bust of Union General William Rosecrans facing to your left. It is a profile, and he gazes off to your left into the distance, not looking directly into the camera. His blue general's uniform has two rows of three buttons and square shoulder board on his shoulder with two stars inside, denoting the rank of major general in the US Army. He has a full, dark bear, dark hair, not too long, yet covering the top portion of his left ear. He has a high forehead and slightly crooked nose. 

CREDIT:

Library of Congress / Brady-Handy Collection


IMAGE 3 of 3: Roper's Rock

DESCRIPTION:

This black and white photograph is of Roper's Rock, a rock outcropping on the side of Lookout Mountain. The photo was obviously taken in the winter as the trees dotting the slopes of the mountain are for the most part, void of leaves. There are a few pines in the photo. In the lower left corner, a US soldiers, supposedly General US Grant, is talking with members of his staff, on the right side of the photo. Sitting and standing in various positions along a trail leading up the right side of the photo toward the rear of their position (in the upper right corner), are members of the staff. They all wear dark blue military uniforms of the US Army during the Civil War. It appears they are in conversation with General Grant. 

CAPTION:

Grant is shown facing his staff on Roper’s Rock atop Lookout Mountain shortly after the battles for Chattanooga.

CREDIT:

Library of Congress / Royan Linn


RELATED TEXT: The campaign resulted in the fall of two commanders and the rise of another. Although Confederate Gen. Braxton Bragg won at Chickamauga, he lost Chattanooga and had to resign. After abandoning his troops at Chickamauga, Union Gen. William Rosecrans was removed from command. When Gen. Ulysses S. Grant arrived in Chattanooga, he took command of Union forces and replaced Rosecrans with Gen. George Thomas, whose men had gallantly held Horseshoe Ridge at Chickamauga.

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IMAGE and TEXT: Rural Southern Farms

DESCRIPTION:

This is a black and white photo of a rural country farm located in North Georgia during the Civil War. The sky is clear, void of any clouds. A forest of large trees encompass the horizon with farm buildings and fences dotting the foreground. To your center, right is a large log, roofed structure with a smaller log roofed building directly behind. Across an open space, to the center left of the photo, stands a long log structure, which is partially roofed, with much of its shingles missing. It looks like an extremely dilapidated barn. In the photo's foreground are fences. A picket fence boxes in a grassy area, while a split, wormrail fence extends along a dirt road, running horizontally, from left to right in the photo. 

CREDIT:

National Archives / Mathew Brady.

RELATED TEXT:

Taken from the Cherokee Nation in 1838, the rich lands alongside Chickamauga Creek became home to 24 families. They cleared the woods to grow crops of corn or wheat and planted rows of fruit trees. As battle loomed, the families fled before their farm fields became killing fields. Once the fighting subsided, they returned to trampled crops and fields littered with dead. Some repaired the damage and resumed farming, while others were forced to abandon their homes. Several of the families—Brotherton, Kelly, and Snodgrass—are immortalized today on the battlefield.

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IMAGE and TEXT: Change in Chattanooga

DESCRIPTION:

This 1864 black and white photograph shows the City of Chattanooga sitting under the dark, looming outline of Lookout Mountain, which takes up the majority of the photo's background. In the foreground buildings, some made of brick and some of wood, stand along the deserted dirt streets of Chattanooga. Four canvas army tents and an open top army wagon and horses are the only indication of the Union Army's occupation during the war.  

CREDIT:

National Archives

RELATED TEXT:

War transformed Chattanooga from a small town to a bustling, industrial city. During the siege, residents saw stately homes become hospitals, while local forests provided lumber for warehouses and forts. After the battles, they could see the ruins of the “white house” on Lookout Mountain, owned by local resident and iron master Robert Cravens. But they also started to see Union soldiers making improvements like bridging the Tennessee River, building a waterworks, and expanding the thriving railroad industry. Much like the city, Cravens rebuilt and prospered.

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IMAGES and TEXT: Soldiering to Freedom

IMAGE 1 of 2: Hubbard Pryor before

DESCRIPTION:

This black and white photo shows a clean-shaven African American man sitting on a wooden stool, staring, with no visible facial expressions, questionably into the camera. His shoes are mud-spattered, his pants are torn to the point they look like rags tied together. His shirt is ripped at the cuffs, with large holes and rips along the arms. His hands rest upon his knees. He wears a floppy hat.

CREDIT:

National Archives.


IMAGE 2 of 2: Hubbard Pryor after

DESCRIPTION:

This black and white photo shows the same clean-shave African American man after he enlisted in the 44th United States Colored Troops in Chattanooga. He wears army brogans on his feet, light colored trousers, and the dark blue woolen frock coat of the US Army. Across his waist is a belt with a bayonet and musket percussion cap box attached and clasped closed with a brass US Army buckle. Across his chest is his cartridge box strap. He also holds a rifled musket in his right hand, vertical to his body and resting on his right shoulder. He wears a dark blue floppy forage cap with circular top and leather band and bill. His countenance is the same as his previous photo - stoick and seemingly questioning. 

CREDIT:

National Archives.


RELATED TEXT:

Union-held Chattanooga became a beacon of freedom for people escaping slavery. Camp Contraband, so named because escaped slaves were considered “contraband” or illegal property, protected more than 2,000 people.

In 1863, the US Army began recruiting former slaves. Hubbard Pryor (left), escaped slavery in Georgia to don the blue uniform of the Union Army at Camp Contraband (right). By war’s end, Pryor and over 20,000 free men and former slaves had joined the United States Colored Troops.

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OVERVIEW: Back side of brochure

Side two of the brochure is comprised of text, a large area map, a small inset map, and five color photographs. Photos surrounding these maps highlight places within the units.


The text, associated maps, and photo descriptions are presented under their own sections. In addition to the map and photo descriptions, the text sections provide many descriptive details about what the areas look like and information about getting there and what trails and amenities might be available.

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MAP: Exploring Chickamauga and Chattanooga

DESCRIPTION:

This is a large overview map of the Chattanooga area and the multiple units of Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park that dot the landscape. The map's primary purpose is for directional wayfinding. North is situated to the  top of the map. The map's general color is dull, with park units outlined and shaded in a light green. The mountains, ridges, and hills are somewhat three dimensional. Rivers, lakes, creeks, and streams are shaded blue, while roadways are generally black, except Interstates systems, which are red. 


Chickamauga Battlefield can be found in the lower right section of the map, 9 miles south of Chattanooga. LaFayette Road bisects the park and was an important road during the 1863 battle. The park visitor center is situated at the top of the large green shaded box, denoting the 5,300 preserved acres at Chickamauga. In addition to black lined roads and picnic locations, there are road names, field names, and some state monument names on the map. Likely, the most important piece is the park driving tour. a green line highlights the seven mile tour route, with white letters, encased by green circles, denoting the eight suggested tour stops. 

On the maps left center, and to the northwest of Chickamauga by about 13 miles are the 3,000 acres of Lookout Mountain Battlefield, situated on the top and slopes of the famed Lookout Mountain. Point Park, on the very northern tip of Lookout Mountain, is where the park's visitor center is located and the subject of the inset map, located in the upper left section of the brochure, discussed in another section. 


Immediately above and slightly to the right of Lookout Mountain, across the Tennessee River, is Moccasin Bend National Archeological District, which is currently under development. This peninsula looks much like an American Indian moccasin shoe, cut out by the winding of the Tennessee River. 

Chattanooga sits just to the right of Moccasin Bend, near the maps center. Roads and highways radiate out from the city, which has two national areas of interest within it's limits - the Chattanooga National Cemetery, administered by the Veterans Administration, and Orchard Knob, which is knoll the size of a city block protected because if its importance during the Battles for Chattanooga. 

To the right of Chattanooga, on the maps far right side, running in a southwest pattern from the map's upper right to its lower left, is a long ridge known as Missionary Ridge. Dotted along the top of the ridge, off North Crest and South Crest Roads are various reservations, parcels of land, administered by the National Park Service. These include from South to North - Iowa Reservation, Bragg Reservation, Ohio Reservation, Turchin Reservation, De Long Reservation, 73rd Pennsylvania Reservation, and Sherman Reservation. 

In the northwest corner of the map, upper left, is a small green square, atop a large mountain named Signal Mountain. This area, protected by the park, is known as Signal Point and is one of the areas Union signalmen transmitted information during the City of Chattanooga's siege in 1863.  

CREDIT:

NPS.

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MAP: Point Park

DESCRIPTION:

This is a small, inset map, located in the upper left corner of the larger park area map. North is to the map's top. The roadways leading to the visitor center are located on the map's bottom, and the visitor center is indicated by a small, brown square. Across the street, just above the building, is the Point Park Gate, where visitors pay the park admission. Above the gate, encircling the park, are white outlined walkways, which lead to white numbered, green circles. These circles are highlighted points of interest for visitors wishing to walk through the park without a ranger. One loop trail continues off the main circular trail and heads further north on the map. 

This loop leads down a path to the Ochs Memorial Observatory, where visitors can take in a captivating view of Chattanooga, the Tennessee River, and the surrounding area. There is also a small museum housing some temporary exhibits. If you choose to visit the museum, as you face forward, you view a large black and white photo of a man standing upon a rock that looks much like a mushroom. This is called Umbrella Rock and was the site of a relatively famous photography studio. This exhibit discussed photography on Lookout Mountain. As you look down the hallway to your right, on the left side of the wall are multiple images of soldiers taken on Lookout Mountain. on the right side of the wall are artifacts and text discussing the signal corps during the Campaign for Chattanooga.  If you look down the hallway to your left, on the left side of the wall, is a case with a large map showing the route of the famous "Cracker Line," which brought supplies to the Union Army in Chattanooga. A large box of hardtack crackers is displayed in this case as well. On the wall to the right are multiple panels discussing the history of Moccasin Bend National Archeological District, including the various pre-historic American Indian time periods, Spanish contact, and the Trial of Tears that are all associated with Moccasin Bend. As you leave, if you turn to the right or to the left, the trail will take you up the mountain, back toward the main trail that loops back to the Point Park Entrance Gate and toward the park's visitor center. 

RELATED TEXT:

Point Park is across from the visitor center; fee. 

Highlight 1 – Point Park Gate was built by the US Army Corps of Engineers and is a replica of the Corps insignia. 

Highlight 2 – Artillery marks a small part of the Confederate battery during the siege.

Highlight 3 – New York Peace Monument symbolizes reunification and reconciliation. Even its materials, Tennessee marble and Massachusetts pink granite, carry the theme.

Highlight 4 –  From Garrity’s Battery, Confederates tried to stop Union troops from crossing Moccasin Bend. 

Highlight 5 – During the Battle of Lookout Mountain, Van Den Corput’s Battery attempted to fire on Union soldiers advancing on the slopes below. From here, you can walk down to Ochs Memorial Observatory via tiers of steps. 

Highlight 6 – Visit the observatory’s museum to learn more about the Civil War and American Indians. Enjoy spectacular views of the Chattanooga area from the terrace. You can continue on trails to other scenic views on Lookout Mountain.

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IMAGE and TEXT: Orchard Knob

DESCRIPTION:

This image, taken on a clear fall day, shows a low hill, dotted with shafted monuments and hardwood trees with no leaves. Along the bottom of the photo, from left to right, runs a historic block wall with an elaborate double iron gate. Behind the gate, and winding up the hillside, is a paved path. 

CREDIT:

NPS

RELATED TEXT:

At the time of the Civil War, Orchard Knob was outside city limits. It offers clear views of Lookout Mountain, Missionary Ridge, and Chattanooga — exactly what Union General Grant needed to guide his troops during the battles for Chattanooga.

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IMAGE and TEXT: Moccasin Bend

DESCRIPTION:

This photograph, taken in the fall from Lookout Mountain, shows a gray cloudy skyline with a large peninsula shaped like a American Indian's moccasin shoe in the center. The Tennessee River flows around this peninsula, which is shaded with rich green, brown, and bronze trees. The view is from the Ochs Museum, located at the northern tip of Lookout Mountain. 

CREDIT:

NPS

RELATED TEXT:

Seen here from Lookout Mountain, Moccasin Bend tells stories spanning over 12,000 years. During the siege of Chattanooga, Union troops opened a supply route across the bend, out of reach of Confederate artillery on Lookout Mountain.

Some Union and Confederate leaders were here in 1838 when the US Army forced the area’s Cherokees to move to Indian Territory (Oklahoma). At least two groups of Cherokees traversed the bend and crossed the river at Brown’s Ferry, leaving almost everything behind on their Trail of Tears. This removal was the final blow to tribes who

first encountered the Spanish here three centuries before.

Today Moccasin Bend is a National Archeological District. It has a three-mile loop trail;

other visitor services are planned.

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IMAGE and TEXT: Missionary Ridge

DESCRIPTION:

This photo is of the Illinois Monument located inside the Bragg Reservation on Missionary Ridge. A clear sky canvases the background and large, hardwood trees, clothed in greens and oranges surround the monument. The monument is a large shaft, with a wide base. Around the square base, are four bronze rectangular tablets embeded in the monument's side, while four circular pedestals are located on the rectangular base's four corners. Atop these pedestals are soldiers representative of the branches of service from the state of Illinois. Atop the high shaft is another pedestal, on which a lady stands, sword in her right hand and wreath in her left. She faces your right, looking off the back of Missionary Ridge in the direction of the Confederate retreat. 

CREDIT:

NPS

RELATED TEXT:

This steep ridge stretches from Chattanooga to Chickamauga. North and South Crest roads follow the ridge to seven military reservations (parcels of land set aside to commemorate the battle) and the Phelps Monument. Highlights include: 

Bragg Reservation 

The Illinois Monument (above) honors Union troops from that state who participated in the Battle of Missionary Ridge. From his headquarters, located here, Confederate General Bragg attempted to rally his demoralized troops. Instead, they fled the ridge and retreated to Georgia.

Sherman Reservation

This reservation marks the site where Confederate Gen. Patrick Cleburne successfully halted Union Gen. William T. Sherman’s assaults on Missionary Ridge. This action forced Union officers to send troops toward the Confederate entrenchments at the center and base of the ridge.

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IMAGES and TEXT: Touring Chickamauga Battlefield

IMAGE 1 of 2: Wilder Brigade Monument

DESCRIPTION:

Full, green trees dot the background of this color photograph. Also in the background is a large cylindrical monument made of white washed stone with a square base that can be entered and climbed. It sits on a hillside. Four small slit windows evenly creep up the vertical face of the monument, providing light for the monument's inside. At the top, which has the look of a medieval castle turret, visitors can gaze out onto the battlefield. In the photo's foreground, a square base, shafted monument sits to the 8th Wisconsin Battery. The shaft is divided into five sections. On the monument's face and lower section, near the ground, which is facing to your right, the word's "8th Wisconsin Battery" are etched into the monument. Just above it, in the second section, is a bronze three dimensional relief of a set of crossed cannon barrels surrounded by a wreath. In the third section, a bronze circle, which is the Wisconsin state seal, is affixed. Just above this, in the fourth section, is a star, denoting the army corps in which the 8th Wisconsin was assigned. The top section completes the shaft and comes together in a pyramidal peak. Just to the rear and to the right of the 8th Wisconsin, as you face it, there is a 3-inch ordnance rifle, which is a black barreled cannon sitting on two brown wheels, facing to your right. 


CAPTION:

Climb the Wilder Brigade Monument (open seasonally) for a view of the battlefield. 
The 8th Wisconsin Battery Monument stands next to it.

CREDIT:
NPS

IMAGE 2 of 2: Brotherton Cabin
DESCRIPTION:
A small, rectangular park exhibit is in the lower section of this color photograph, and it explains who the Brotherton's were and why their house was so significant during the Battle of Chickamauga. Just above the exhibit, in the bright green grass, sits the reproduction Brotherton Cabin. To your right, and slightly in front of the cabin is a metal sign with a finger pointing the cabin. The sign says "Brotherton Cabin." The cabin is constructed of large squared logs, with pinkish mud in between then and a large door in the cabin's center. Today, the door has vertical iron bars affixed as to allow visitors to peer into the cabin, yet not enter. The cabin as a triangular roof with wooden shingles and a stone fireplaces protrudes from the rooftop. To the left of the cabin, as you face it, there is a square monument made of stone and to its left is a black barreled 3-inch ordnance rifle cannon on two brown wheels. To the cabin's right as you face it, nestled in a small grove of hardwoods, there is a small stone wayside exhibit, where visitors can learn more about the battle around the cabin, which includes a box, housing a button and speaker that when pressed, provides a Confederate perspective of the famed Confederate breakthrough that changes the course of the battle. The sky above the landscape is blue and clear, without a cloud in sight. 

CAPTION:
Confederates swarmed past the Brotherton cabin as they broke through Union defenses. 

CREDIT:
NPS

RELATED TEXT:
Throughout the tour, you will see monuments and memorials honoring those who fought here. You may also notice tablets, blue for Union and red for Confederate, that describe the soldiers’ actions; they date from around 1890. You can reach the
major points of interest on the seven-mile auto tour. Hear more details on your cell phone, 585-672-2619, or chch.toursphere.com; follow the prompts. Most stops follow the battle’s final day, September 20.
Highlight 1 – Breckinridge’s Assault
Confederates commanded by former US Vice President John C. Breckinridge assaulted and briefly penetrated the Union line in this area before turning their attack southward.
Highlight 2 – The Battle Line 
The line of Union monuments extending the length of Battleline Road mark where Union troops constructed crude breastworks during the early morning hours.
Secure in their positions, they successfully halted repeated Confederate assaults.
Highlight 3 – 
Mix-up in Union Command
As officers called for troops to strengthen the left end of the Union line, Rosecrans ordered a division to shift out of its position. Unknowingly, his command created a fatal gap in the line.
Highlight 4 – Confederate Breakthrough
Before troops could fill the gap in the Union line, the yells of thousands of Confederates
pierced the air as they poured across LaFayette Road and through the gap. The breakthrough split the Union Army. 
Highlight 5 – Viniard Field 
Step back one day to September 19. Thousands of soldiers, one division at a time, fought back and forth across this field trying to gain control of LaFayette Road. When sunset came, neither side held the road, yet thousands had paid the ultimate sacrifice.
Highlight 6 – Lightning Strikes 
Union Col. John T. Wilder’s brigade of mounted infantry, armed with Spencer repeating rifles, halted a portion of the attacking Confederates. The ”Lightning Brigade” had the only Union success on this part of the field.
Highlight 7 – Rout of the Union Right
Confederate soldiers swept out of the woods and into the fields in what one commander called “a scene of unsurpassed grandeur.” This attack collapsed the Union right, forcing the defenders, including Rosecrans, to flee.
Highlight 8 – Horseshoe Ridge and Snodgrass Hill Union soldiers held the ridge throughout the afternoon, repulsing repeated Confederate assaults. As darkness fell, one final assault revealed the remaining Union troops had slipped away to Chattanooga. After three days of fighting, the Confederate Army of Tennessee was
victorious.
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IMAGE: Tour Symbol

DESCRIPTION:

This image is a triangular stack of cannon balls with the word "Tour" at the base and an white circle with a black arrow inside positioned in the stack's center. 

CAPTION:

Follow these signs for the Chickamauga Battlefield Tour.

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TEXT: Planning Your Visit

In 1890, the US Congress authorized Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park, the first such park in the United States. It was dedicated in 1895 and has since served as a model for most national military and historical parks.

The park has two visitor centers open daily except December 25 and January 1.


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TEXT: Chickamauga Battlefield

Explore events of September 1863 at this visitor center. View exhibits and a film about the battles; see a large collection of military weapons. Take the self-guiding auto tour described below.

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TEXT: Lookout Mountain

Atop this mountain, discover details about the siege of Chattanooga and the battles for control of the city. View exhibits and the historic 13- by 30-foot James Walker painting, The Battle of Lookout Mountain. Point Park (described at far left) has battery positions, monuments, exhibits, trails, and views.

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TEXT: Safety and Regulations

Do not climb cannons and monuments.

• Federal laws protect all cultural and natural features.

• Do not dig or use metal detectors.

• Do not collect any objects.

• Report suspicious activity to a park ranger.

• See the park website for other regulations.

Emergencies call 911.

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OVERVIEW: Accessibility

We strive to make our facilities, services, and programs accessible to all. For information go to a visitor center, ask a ranger, call, or check the park website.

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OVERVIEW: More information

Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park is one of over 400 areas in the National Park System. To learn more visit, www.nps.gov.


ADDRESS:

Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park

3370 LaFayette Road

Fort Oglethorpe, GA 30742


PHONE:

706-866-9241


PARK WEBSITE:

www.nps.gov/chch


OTHER INFORMATION:


Follow us on Facebook, Twitter, and other social media.


National Park Foundation.


Join the park community, www.nationalparks.org.

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