Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park

Audio Available:

OVERVIEW: About this audio-described brochure

Welcome to the audio-described version of Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park's official print brochure. Through text and audio descriptions of photos, illustrations, and maps, this version interprets the two-sided color brochure that Kennesaw visitors receive. The brochure explores the history of the park, some of its highlights, and information for planning your visit. This audio version lasts about 33 minutes which we have divided into 26 sections, as a way to improve the listening experience. Sections 1-13 cover the front of the brochure and include information regarding the beginning of the Civil War campaign, the fall of Atlanta and other key moments.  Sections 14-26 cover the back of the brochure, including information about the site's landmarks.

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OVERVIEW: Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park

Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park, located in Georgia, is part of the National Park Service, within the Department of the Interior. We invite you to explore the park's natural beauty and learn its historic story. To find out more about what resources might be available or to contact the park directly, visit the "Accessibility" and "More Information" sections at the end of this audio-described brochure.

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OVERVIEW: Front side of brochure

This side of the brochure details the history of the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain by providing text that shows perspective with historic events leading up to the battle and immediately following, showing historic photographs and paintings, a map, details on key leaders, and providing pictures of artifacts that are in the park's museum collection. Most photos are black and white unless otherwise noted. 

There is one large painting dominating the top third of the brochure. There is an overview battle map of the Atlanta Campaign in the center of the brochure. At the bottom of the brochure, running from right to left, are 4 historic photographs, pictures of 8 artifacts that can be found in the park's museum, and a brief note on three Union and Confederate leaders during this time. 


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IMAGE, QUOTE, and TEXT: The Road Past Kennesaw: The 1864 Atlanta Campaign

DESCRIPTION:

This is a dramatic painting by Swedish artist, Thure de Thulstrup. Hundreds of Union soldiers amass on foot, horseback, and in carriages to attack Kennesaw Mountain. In the immediate foreground of the painting, there are officers and cavalrymen on horseback moving and shouting orders. In the left corner, a horse drawn wagon pulls men and supplies. In the center of the action a horse rears back from an artillery explosion fired from Kennesaw Mountain in the background. In front of the officers and horses, there are several lines of Infantry soldiers standing at attention, muskets with attached bayonets pointing in the air. Among the Infantry soldiers are United States and Regimental flags waving in the breeze. In the background of this scene is the imposing ridge line of Big and Little Kennesaw Mountain. There are puffs of smoke to show Confederate artillery being fired from positions on the top of the two peaks, as well as from the 'saddle', or depression between them. The ground is muddy and churned looking, the Georgia red clay showing prominently. There are a few stunted trees and several splintered remnants of trees peppered throughout the scene. 

CAPTION:

Thure de Thulstrup’s painting, in the park visitor center, depicts Sherman’s men positioned to attack Kennesaw Mountain as Confederate artillery fire rains down on them.

CREDIT:

NPS.


QUOTE:

"You cannot qualify war in harsher terms than I will. War is cruelty and you cannot refine it." — William T. Sherman, General, US Army.


RELATED TEXT:

Ulysses S. Grant assumed command of all Federal armies in March 1864 and ordered a coordinated offensive to destroy Confederate resistance and end the war. The major efforts focused on eastern Virginia and northwestern Georgia.

Grant accompanied Maj. Gen. George G. Meade who led the Army of the Potomac against Gen. Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia. From a position near Chattanooga, Tennessee, Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman led the Georgia offensive against Gen. Joseph E. Johnston’s men, entrenched along Rocky Face Ridge at Dalton, Georgia. Grant ordered Sherman to “move against Johnston’s army, to break it up, and to get into the interior of the enemy’s country as far as you can, inflicting all the damage you can against their war resources.”

Over the past three years the Confederacy had lost control of the Mississippi River, most of Tennessee, and much of Mississippi. Yet its heartland remained mostly  untouched by the war. A still intact belt of manufacturing communities stretched from Augusta, Georgia, to Selma, Alabama, with the major city of Atlanta at its center.

Even more important, Atlanta harbored a vital Confederate rail junction. Four railroads met here, linking the southern Atlantic seaboard states with the western Confederacy. The Western & Atlantic Railroad linked Atlanta with Chattanooga, to the northwest, and carried supplies for both sides. Its tracks formed the axis of the Atlanta Campaign. The Georgia Railroad ran east to Augusta, where it connected with lines to Charleston, Raleigh, and the Confederate capital of Richmond. The Macon & Western ran southeast, with connections to Savannah. Just south of Atlanta, at East Point, the Atlanta & West Point extended west into Alabama.

From May to September 1864, Federal and Confederate forces clashed across northern Georgia, from Dalton to Atlanta, in fierce battles and almost daily skirmishes and maneuvers. During the final siege of Atlanta, Sherman’s troops cut the city’s rail links. Confederate troops evacuated the city on September 1; Sherman entered the following day. Atlanta had fallen.

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TEXT: The Civil War in the Western Theater, 1861–64

Southern states secede; Fort Sumter bombarded; war begins.

Dec. 1860–April 1861


Kentucky ends neutrality, comes under Union control.

Sept. 1861


Union takes forts Henry and Donelson; controls Tennessee River.

Feb. 1862


Union takes Island No. 10, then Memphis, on Mississippi River.

Feb., June 1862


Union victory at Battle of Pea Ridge establishes control of Missouri.

March 1862


Union victory at Shiloh opens way into northern Mississippi.

April 1862


Union Navy takes New Orleans; gains access to Mississippi River.

April 1862


Battle of Stones River secures middle Tennessee for Union.

Jan. 1863


Grant takes Vicksburg, opens Mississippi River, splitting Confederacy.

Jan.–July 1863


At Chickamauga, South gains greatest victory in western theater.

Sept. 1863


Union victory in Chattanooga Campaign opens way to lower South.

Nov. 1863


Atlanta Campaign; Sherman takes Atlanta, begins march to the sea.

May–Nov. 1864


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TEXT: The Campaign Begins

Sherman began his march on Atlanta on May 7. Two days later he approached General Johnston’s position on a steep ridge called Rocky Face. Sherman sent a column through Snake Creek Gap to threaten the Western & Atlantic Railroad, Johnston’s supply connection with Atlanta. After leaving Rocky Face, Johnston moved south and dug in at Resaca, where from May 13 to 15 he repulsed Sherman’s attacks.


When a Union column swung west to cross the Oostanaula River and again threaten the railroad, Johnston retreated to Adairsville, where the two forces skirmished on the 17th. They halted at dusk, when Johnston fell back.


As Sherman advanced toward Atlanta, he tried to contain the entrenched Confederates with part of his force while sending another column around their flank—always

trying to sever the Western & Atlantic Railroad supply lines. Johnston repeatedly

withdrew to intercept the threats.


By late May, Johnston had pulled back to a position in the Allatoona Mountains. Sherman swung wide to the southwest, but Johnston sidestepped and slowed his progress with fighting at New Hope Church, Pickett’s Mill, and Dallas, May 25 to 28. Sherman resumed his advance on June 10. When forced to swing eastward, he followed a bend in the railroad to avoid straying too far from his own supply line.


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TEXT: Battle for Kennesaw

By June 19, despite weeks of continual rain, Sherman’s troops forced Johnston to withdraw again, this time to a prepared defensive position anchored by Kennesaw Mountain, a lofty ridge with rocky slopes rising above the surrounding plain. Using enslaved labor, Confederate engineers had laid out elaborate trenches from which cannon and rifle fire greeted the enemy’s approach from any direction.


Again Sherman extended his lines to the south to get around the Confederate flank. Again Johnston countered, shifting 11,000 men under Gen. John Bell Hood to meet the threat. At Kolb’s Farm on June 22 Hood struck savagely but unsuccessfully. He failed to repel the Northerners.


Immobilized by muddy roads, Sherman suspected that Johnston’s defenses, though strong, might be thin. One sharp thrust might break through. He diverted Johnston’s attention with attacks on Kennesaw and the Confederate left flank, then leveled a two-pronged attack on the enemy’s center.


The attacking brigades moved into position before dawn on June 27. At 8 am, after an artillery bombardment, they surged forward. Both attacks were brief, bloody failures. Astride Burnt Hickory Road three Union brigades totaling 5,500 men crossed swampy, heavily wooded terrain. Before they could reach their objective—a mountain spur today called Pigeon Hill—sheets of fire drove them under cover. From Little Kennesaw and Pigeon Hill, Confederates rolled rocks down on the Union soldiers. Sherman recalled the attack when he saw that it could not succeed.


Meanwhile, on a hill south of Dallas Road (now Dallas Highway), 8,000 Union infantrymen attacked two entrenched divisions of Johnston’s army. Many in the assaulting waves were shot down. Some advanced to close quarters, and for a few minutes brutal hand-to-hand fighting occurred on top of the defenders’ earthworks. Both sides grimly nicknamed this place the “Dead Angle.”


Sherman resumed his flanking strategy, forcing Johnston to abandon his Kennesaw lines during the night of July 2. The Confederates had lost 800 men, the Northerners 1,800, but the Union’s diversionary movement on the Confederate left had an unforeseen benefit. It placed Sherman closer to Chattahoochee River crossings. He

surprised Johnston by sending a small force across the river upstream from where Confederates guarded the railroad bridge. Outflanked again, Johnston had to retreat across the Chattahoochee.


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MAP: The Atlanta Campaign

DESCRIPTION:

This is a map showing an overview of the Atlanta Campaign and the corresponding battles. The map shows the Northwestern corner of Georgia, from Atlanta up. For reference, you can see the Eastern most sliver of Alabama, Southernmost part of Tennessee, and a small chunk of Western North Carolina. There are topographical reliefs to show elevated areas and mountains, as well as blue lines and labels to show major rivers. The most prominent feature on the map is the Western and Atlantic Railroad, which is running South from Chattanooga, TN into Atlanta, GA. There are three other railroads coming out of Atlanta. To the East is the Georgia Railroad, to the Southwest are the Atlanta and West Point Railroad and the Macon and Western Railroad. The major battles of the Atlanta Campaign mostly correspond on or close to The Western and Atlantic Railroad (from Chattanooga to Atlanta) and are indicated by small yellow explosions. The battles and dates, from North to South are as follows: 

Rocky Face: May 9, Resaca: May 13 - 15, Pickett's Mill: May 27, New Hope Church: May 25, Dallas: May 28, Kolb's Farm: June 22, Kennesaw Mountain: June 27, Peachtree Creek: July 20, Ezra Church: July 28, Atlanta: July 22 (occupied September 2), Jonesboro: August 31 - September 1. 


CREDIT:

NPS.

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TEXT: The Fall of Atlanta

The rest of Sherman’s army crossed the Chattahoochee on July 9 and Johnston withdrew to the fortifications of Atlanta. For Confederate President Jefferson Davis, already exasperated by Johnston’s fallbacks and lack of aggressiveness, this was the last straw. He relieved Johnston of command and replaced him with General Hood. Meanwhile, Sherman was closing on Atlanta from the north and east. Hood tried unsuccessfully to destroy the army of Gen. George H. Thomas as it crossed Peachtree Creek on July 20.

Two days later, at the Battle of Atlanta, Hood struck at Gen. James B. McPherson’s army. The Confederates suffered heavy losses. Planning to outflank Atlanta’s defenders, Sherman swung west of the city, where at Ezra Church, on July 28, Hood lashed out again. He met with defeat.

In August, Sherman placed Atlanta under siege, continually shifting troops to cut the city’s rail links to the rest of the South. On August 31 he seized the last one, the Macon & Western. After Hood lost a two-day battle near Jonesboro, he ordered all public property destroyed and the city evacuated. Sherman entered on September 2 and triumphantly telegraphed the news to Washington: “Atlanta is ours, and fairly won.”

Atlanta’s fall crippled the Confederacy’s capacity and will to make war. Coupled with Union victories elsewhere, the war’s end was now in sight. In the North people rejoiced, and on November 8 reelected President Abraham Lincoln, endorsing a fight to the finish. A week later Sherman left Atlanta in ruins and began his “March to the Sea.”

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IMAGES and TEXT: Union and Confederate Leadership

IMAGE 1 of 3: William T. Sherman

DESCRIPTION:  

A now iconic picture of Union Major General William T. Sherman. Only his head and the top of his chest is pictured, and he is looking slightly off from the camera, hair tousled and beard short, but not perfectly groomed. He has dark hair, beard, and eyes. His expression is neutral, and he is wearing his dress uniform with neck tie. This picture is in black and white. 

CAPTION:

William T. Sherman.

CREDIT:

Library of Congress.


IMAGE 2 of 3: Joseph E. Johnston

DESCRIPTION:

In this picture of Confederate Major General Joseph E. Johnston, he is staring sternly just off center from the camera. He is balding, with short gray hair, and a medium length salt and pepper beard. The picture shows only his head and neck, and his frock coat and collar are visible. Confederate officers showed rank via large stars on their coat collars, and Johnston's are very prominent in this picture. From what is visible of his coat, it is gray and double-breasted, with brass buttons. He has dark eyes and the picture is in black and white. 

CAPTION:

Joseph E. Johnston.

CREDIT:

National Archives.


IMAGE 1 of 3: John Bell Hood

DESCRIPTION:

IN this picture of Confederate General John B. Hood, his light brownish hair is slicked back and he is looking almost directly at the camera. He has a large, bushy beard that extends to just below his throat. The picture is only of his head and the top of his chest. The part of his coat that is visible is light gray and double-breasted with brass buttons. 

CAPTION:

John Bell Hood.

CREDIT:

Library of Congress.


RELATED TEXT:

Confederate Gen. Joseph E. Johnston repeatedly frustrated Union Gen. William T. Sherman’s attempts to out-maneuver him. Johnston’s failure to stop the Federals, however, caused Jefferson Davis to replace him with Gen. John Bell Hood. Hood fought hard to save Atlanta, but supply and morale problems forced him to abandon the city.

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IMAGES: Pigeon Hill

IMAGE 1 of 2: Little Kennesaw and Big Kennesaw

DESCRIPTION:

In the background of this black and white picture, there is a prominent ridge line. Running from left to right, the larger peak of Big Kennesaw is just barely visible and is mostly cut off at the edge of the picture. From the peak, it gently slopes down and slightly rises to the rounded peak of Little Kennesaw, which is the most prominent in the picture. From Little Kennesaw, the ridge slopes again, but this time the rise is very slight and shows the knop of Pigeon Hill, before this is also cut off at the edge of the picture. Immediately in front of Little Kennesaw, just to the right of center, is a small, wooden house that is surrounded by a wooden fence. In the foreground and surround the house and fencing, are a series of abandoned trenches, holes, and hastily built wooden structures that served to fortify the defenses of the soldiers who were there before. The ground appears to be churned up and muddy. Only a few trees are sporadically visible on the horizon at the base of the ridge line. 

CAPTION:

In this picture of Little Kennesaw, Pigeon Hill is the knob rising to the right in the middle distance. Big Kennesaw is barely visible at the left, beyond Little Kennesaw.

CREDIT:

Library of Congress.


IMAGE 2 of 2: Entrenchments 

DESCRIPTION:

This is a view from behind Confederate defensive positions located on Pigeon Hill. The background appears to be a mixture of sporadic forests and large fields. Several skeletal, damaged trees are spread out among both the background and foreground. Dominating the picture in the foreground is what looks likes low log walls. there is dirt piled up over the top of each fortified log position, and a small opening between the two walls. In the immediate foreground to the left, there is what appears to be a small white door, leaning against the log wall. To the right of that is the remains of a large stump sitting next to a large boulder. The picture is in black and white. 

CAPTION:

View from behind Confederate earthworks at Pigeon Hill, built by enslaved labor as a defense against Union attacks.

CREDIT:

Library of Congress.

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IMAGES: Uniforms and Equipment

IMAGE 1 of 2: Confederate supplies

DESCRIPTION:

These three items were essential to the average Confederate soldier in the field. From left to right: A tin metal plate, that appears rusted and tarnished with wear. A gray, woolen 'shell coat' with a high collar, high waste, and simple, tarnished metal buttons. A tin cup, also tarnished and rusted with wear. The final item in the line is the soldiers hat, or 'kepi'. This hat is a brownish gray, faded and ripped with age. It has circular top, and short leather brim. 

CAPTION:

Confederate officer’s shell jacket; Confederate field cap; tin drinking cup and plate.

CREDIT:

NPS.


IMAGE 2 of 2: Field gear 

DESCRIPTION:

From left to right: A black field telescope. The telescope is cylindrical, sheathed in black leather, with a brass band for adjusting the focus near the center. Next is a Union officer's frock coat. This coat is navy blue, knee length, gold color cloth bars on the shoulders to display rank, and a short collar. Below the frock coat is a black saber, or sword. The handle is wrapped in leather, with a curved metal hand guard. The last item in the line is an officer's trunk. The trunk is rectangular, leather coated, and tarnished and scuffed, indicating heavy use and age. 

CAPTION:

Federal officer’s frock coat; Confederate officer’s leather trunk; Confederate saber; Federal officer’s telescope. 

CREDIT:

NPS.

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IMAGES: Western & Atlantic Railroad depot, before and after

IMAGE 1 of 2: Depot before

DESCRIPTION:

This is a black and white image of the bustling Western & Atlantic Railroad depot. The depot itself is a long, wide brick building with three open air entrances for the train cars to arrive and depart. Just visible behind and to the side of the depot are some of the public buildings of Atlanta. These buildings are constructed from a combination of brick and wood. There is a lot of activity surrounding the depot and in the foreground. There are many horse drawn wagons parked towards the back corner, one that appears to be leaving the front of the building, and a group of three that appear to be approaching the depot in the foreground. There is also a string of 8 or so rail cars parked near the front corner of the depot, heavily loaded down with supplies. 

CREDIT:

Library of Congress.

IMAGE 2 of 2: Depot after

DESCRIPTION:

This picture of the depot is a stark contrast to the bustling and busy 'before' picture. The picture was taken from the front of the depot and is a relatively close shot. In the background of the picture, the 1864 skyline of Atlanta is visible, all brick and wooden buildings. These are only visible because the once formidable brick depot is a heaping ruin. It almost appears as if the building has folded in on itself amid a pile of bricks and wood. It appears completely and utterly destroyed beyond repair. In the immediate foreground, there is more wreckage and ruin, piles of debris everywhere. In left corner of the picture, a lone brick column stands, perhaps as a reminder of what once was. 

CREDIT:

Library of Congress.

RELATED TEXT:

The Western & Atlantic Railroad depot was the terminus for a supply line crucial to both sides during the campaign. Upon leaving Atlanta, Sherman ordered all military and government buildings destroyed. The depot was among the casualties.

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OVERVIEW: Back side of brochure

The bannerhead reads "Life in Cobb County and on the Battlefield, written in black font on a shaded green background. Pictures are scattered along the width of the panel, collage-style. From left to right, the viewer will find a pencil sketch, a portrait, photos, and a map drawing arranged collage-style that represent soldier and civilian life. Informational text is provided to give a better understanding of what life was like in the mid-1800's for residents of Cobb County.

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IMAGES and TEXT: Life in Cobb County

IMAGE 1 of 9: Sketch

DESCRIPTION:

This is the first picture of the collage viewing from left to right. Harper’s Weekly artist Theodore R. Davis made this black and white pencil sketch, entitled, "General Sherman's Campaign - "Big Shanty Station - General Logan's Advance, June 10, 1864" .  The picture depicts a railroad depot with three wooden shanty buildings behind a rail track, with Kennesaw Mountain rising above the treeline. The words "Big Shanty" appear on the larger of the structures.  In front of the tracks is a tall standing timber which has been stripped to be a telegraph pole. There are four riders on horseback , two on either side of the shanty buildings. 

In the forefront of the picture, in the left side of the frame, is a man on horseback, facing forward. To the right of the frame, we see three men riding on horses towards the lone rider aforementioned.  Each running horse shows four outstretched legs, showing active movement. It appears as if each of the riders is in a military uniform with hat.  

CAPTION:

Harper's Weekly artist Theodore R. Davis made this sketch of Kennesaw (then called Big Shanty) in June 1864.

CREDIT:

NPS.


IMAGE 2 of 9: Henry G. Cole

DESCRIPTION:

This picture is a portrait of Henry Cole Green, a secret Union supporter. His body is positioned at an angle, with the back of his head to the right of the frame. He has dark eyes and dark, bushy eyebrows, a prominent, angular nose, and thin non-smiling lips. His dark hair appears straight at the scalp, but curls near and around his ears. His hair is mid-neck length. He appears to be wearing a colored white dress shirt with a vest and dress coat with velvet collar. He wears a cravat around his neck (which is an 1860's style tie similar to a bow-tie).

CAPTION:

Henry Green Cole was a secret Union supporter and the son-in-law of the owners of Fletcher House Hotel in Marietta. Sherman’s army spared the building in part because of Cole’s clandestine activities.

CREDIT:

Marietta Museum of History.


IMAGE 3 of 9: Fare notes

DESCRIPTION:

This photo shows two Western and Atlantic Railroad "fare notes" that look like currency; one says "The Western and Atlanta R.R. (in all caps and in black font) with the number 50 on the left and right top sides in red font. A picture of a train appears stamped in red ink between the numbers. The second says "The State of Georgia" (in all caps and in blue ink) - with the words "fifty cents" below it. The number 50 is in a circular frame in the top left and top right corners. Between the numbers are a pencil-sketch of 3 men in blue ink. 

Both notes have two signatures each, found at the bottom left and right. 

The Western and Atlantic Railroad note is known as "scrip"; This fifty cent piece was used in lieu of coins.  The State of Georgia note is known as "fractional currency", also used in lieu of coins; the Confederacy had no coins and thus used paper change. 


 

CAPTION:

Citizens of Cobb County used Georgia banknotes and Western & Atlantic Railroad “fare notes,” recognized by the State of Georgia as currency for certain uses.

CREDIT:

NPS.


IMAGE 4 of 9: Surveyor's compass

DESCRIPTION:

This picture is a brass surveyor's compass used by army engineers.  Appearing to lay flat, the center piece is circular with metal "bands" extending from it at the top and bottom.  These bands then have metal endpoints that stick out from the instrument. A thin compass needle is visible, pointing to roughly the 11 o'clock hour position. Orientational/directional abbreviations are visible on the face of the compass. 

CAPTION:

Surveyor's compass.

CREDIT:

NPS.

RELATED TEXT:

Tools of the trade for soldiers at Kennesaw Mountain included a surveyor’s compass used by army engineers, surgeon’s kit, and Confederate Maj. Gen. Joe Wheeler’s map, drawn on cotton for durability.


IMAGE 5 of 9: Surgeon's kit

DESCRIPTION:

Depicted in this picture is an open surgeon's kit with multiple instruments and tourniquet. The kit is brown, approximately 18" in length, rectangular, and has brass locking clasps at either end.  The instruments inside it lay atop a maroon inner lining which appears to be of a worn, crushed velvet-type material. A silver bone saw, which runs the length of the kit, is angles on the left side with a with a molded-leather handle is the most prominent "tool" in the kit. Other tools inside the kit include multiple silver scalpels, forceps, and a spiral tourniquet with a metal screw.

CAPTION:

Surgeon's kit.

CREDIT:

NPS.


IMAGE 6 of 9: Cotton map

DESCRIPTION: 

The flag pictured is Confederate Major General Joe Wheeler's hand-drawn cloth map. The words "Marietta" and "Acworth" are visible, with many other names scattered throughout on the map. Marietta appears  in the central right hand section of the map.  Acworth appears in the northern central section of the map. City/town names are in black, rivers and streams are in blue. Red lines run though out the map, although it is unknown what these represent. From a bird's eye view of the map, the colored lines present themselves as if veins running throughout a body.  The map appears to be large in size (larger than the pictures of the regimental flags that are beside it.  These flags are described below). 




CAPTION:

Confederate Maj. Gen. Joe Wheeler’s map, drawn on cotton for durability.

CREDIT:

NPS.


IMAGE 7 of 9: Confederate regimental flag 1

DESCRIPTION:

This picture is of a cloth Confederate regimental flag. It has 3 stripes running lengthwise - descending in order from red, then white, then red - with a dark blue square at the upper left-hand corner. Inside the blue square are 7 white stars placed in a circular pattern forming a horseshoe shape with an "empty space" at the top . Just under that empty space in the center of the circular pattern of stars - is a single star.

CAPTION:

A Confederate regimental flag.

CREDIT:

NPS.


IMAGE 8 of 9: Confederate regimental flag 2

DESCRIPTION:

This picture shows a tattered and worn cloth Confederate regimental map.  The fabric has an antiqued, delicate look, with most of the original white cloth having turned brown in areas over time. Underneath the thin layer of described fabric is a blue strip of satin material, visible only in the middle section of the left side of the flag. The words "Cherokee Dragoons" are embroidered (in all caps) in the center of the flag. Surrounding the words are interlocking branches tied with a red bow; one branch sweeps to the right encircling the words and one branch sweeps to the left.  Four camellia flowers with leaves are sewn in at each corner of the flag.  The camellia is dark pink in color with a yellow center.  The camellia, a native southern flower, is round in shape with fringed, layered petals.

CAPTION:

Another Confederate regimental flag.

CREDIT:

NPS.


IMAGE 9 of 9: Gun crew

DESCRIPTION:

This picture, taken from the back view, is a depiction of a typical Confederate artillery crew moving their cannon forward.  There are five men visible in the frame.  Their mix-matched uniforms, and the different styles of hats being worn, show the hard times that befell the southern states.  

CAPTION:

Park volunteers demonstrate how a gun crew sponged, loaded, sighted, and fired its weapon.

CREDIT:

Credit for the photograph, illustration, etc., here


RELATED TEXT:

Settlers moved into Cobb County’s rolling countryside in the 1830s, after the US government took the land from the Cherokee under the 1830 Indian Removal Act. Though still known as “Cherokee Georgia” into the 1860s, by then it had become one of the most populous, wealthy counties in the northwestern part of the state.

Much of the prosperity derived from the Western & Atlantic Railroad. Completed by 1850, it gave access to distant markets and attracted new emigrants from Georgia and other parts of the nation. The town of Kennesaw, then Big Shanty, began as a construction camp for workers laying rails for the Western & Atlantic.

Most small planters and farmers in the Kennesaw Mountain region lived in log cabins and later built small frame houses. They typically owned fewer than 10 enslaved workers and probably toiled alongside them. Of the county’s population of 14,242 people, 3,819 were enslaved.

Cotton was the area’s cash crop. Farmers also produced food and pastured livestock, especially hogs. Some owned horses or mules; most used oxen as draft animals.

The large Roswell Mills complex produced textiles, including “Roswell Grey” for Confederate uniforms. The area also had grist mills, tanneries, and sawmills. An 1864 article in the New York Tribune described Marietta, the county seat, as “a perfect grotto of shade . . . . There were during good times, sixteen stores, two druggists, eight groceries, three hotels, four churches . . . . Methodist, Baptist, Presbyterian and Episcopal, three female and one male school besides small schools for young children, all well patronized . . . .”

Many families from coastal Georgia and South Carolina built fine homes in Marietta. They sought the healthier climate of Piedmont Georgia during the summer malaria season. One Union soldier declared that Marietta was “the prettiest town in Northern Georgia.”

Not everyone in Marietta enjoyed a high standard of living. Of the 2,680 residents, nearly half were enslaved, and only 13 free African Americans are registered in the 1860 county census. Free but not equal, they endured many restrictive state laws and local codes.

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MAP: Touring Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park

DESCRIPTION:

This is the official National Park Service map for Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park. North is located at the top of the map, with the park shaded in light green, surrounded by private lands.  Major roadways are identified in red. In general, this National Park Service map is a wayfinding map, showing the important historic locations within the park, roads, waterways, trails, as well as important points of interest in the area. 

A map key is provided in the upper right corner.  The park boundary is identified in dark green. Suggested driving tour stops are identified as a white number in the center of a green circle. Parking areas are shown as a black dot beside a roadway. Hiking trails are identified as a black dash-line. The multi-use trail is identified as a red dash-line.  A numbered, suggested driving tour is described in greater detail below. 


The city of Marietta is to the east of the park and on the right-hand side of the map approximately 1/3 of the way from the bottom of the map.  Sites of interest in Marietta are the Marietta Museum of History, the Marietta National Cemetery, and the Marietta Confederate Cemetery. The city of Kennesaw is located in the far-left upper corner. Sites of interest include the Southern Museum of Civil War and Locomotive History.


CREDIT:

NPS.


RELATED TEXT:

This self-guiding auto tour takes you to the major points of interest. Each tour stop has parking and wayside exhibits. Short interpretive trails are located on the mountaintop, at Pigeon Hill, and at Cheatham Hill.

Highlight 1 – Kennesaw Mountain

An overlook near the summit offers a panoramic view of Atlanta and the northern Georgia terrain where Sherman’s and Johnston’s armies struggled in the late spring and summer of 1864. A short, moderately steep trail leads to the summit. Along the way are exhibits and gun emplacements dug by Confederates to control the Western & Atlantic (now CSX) Railroad.

Highlight 2 – 24-Gun Battery

Located on a small, wooded rise facing Little Kennesaw and Pigeon Hill, this Federal gun emplacement accommodated four batteries, each containing six artillery pieces. These guns bombarded Confederate forces on Kennesaw Mountain off and on for 10 days.

Highlight 3 – Wallis House
Josiah Wallis built this house about 1853. He abandoned it as Sherman’s armies began their approach. Union Gen. Oliver O. Howard’s used it as his headquarters during the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain. It was earlier used as a Confederate hospital. General Sherman was at the Wallis House during the battle at Kolb’s Farm.

Highlight 4 – Pigeon Hill
A foot trail leads to Confederate entrenchments on this mountain spur, where one of Sherman’s two major attacks was repulsed.

Highlight 5 – Cheatham Hill

To protect this hill, now named for Confederate Gen. Benjamin F. Cheatham, the Southerners created a salient (a protruding angle) in their lines. The fiercest fighting of the battle raged here at what came to be called the “Dead Angle.” Along the trail to the imposing Illinois Monument, you’ll see Confederate earthworks and markers where Union soldiers fell.

Highlight 6 – Sherman / Thomas Headquarters
The two Union generals met here to discuss, and ultimately order, an ill-fated frontal assault against Confederate Gen. William Hardee’s troops entrenched atop Cheatham Hill.

Highlight 7 – Kolb's Farm

On the afternoon of June 22, 1864, Union soldiers repulsed Confederate General Hood’s ill-fated attack just north of Powder Springs Road. Union Gen. Joseph Hooker used the Kolb House for his headquarters after the fight. The Kolb family cemetery is adjacent to the house.

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TEXT: Your Visit to the Battlefield

Begin at the visitor center, where you’ll find information, a short film, exhibits, and a bookstore. All are open daily except Thanksgiving, December 25, and January 1. Park staff can answer questions and help you plan your visit. Hours of operation vary seasonally; for specific times call 770-427-4686 or visit www.nps.gov/kemo.

This is a day-use-only park, without any overnight facilities. Hours are posted at all gated lots. Please read them. Vehicles left at the park after posted closing times may be ticketed and towed at the owner’s expense.

The park has monuments, historical markers, cannon emplacements, and 22 miles of trails. Programs are offered on peak season weekends. You must use the shuttle bus (on the hour and half-hour starting at 10 am) to reach the mountaintop on weekends. Fee.

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TEXT: Trails

Park trails offer short walks and long hikes. Starting at the visitor center, the roundtrip distances are 2, 6, 11, and 17 miles. All trails require moderately steep climbing and many offer a mix of flora and fauna. Drinking water is limited; food and shelter are not available along trails. Conditions can be hazardous. Stay on trails, wear sturdy shoes, and be sure to carry water.

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TEXT: Getting Here

From I-75, take exit 269 and drive 2.1 miles west on Barrett Parkway. Turn left onto Old US 41 and proceed 1.2 miles to Stilesboro Road at the first traffic light after entering the park. Turn right onto Stilesboro Road, then left through the park gate into the visitor center parking lot.

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TEXT: Safety and Regulations

Park only in designated areas.

• All natural and cultural resources are protected by federal law. Do not climb on cannons, monuments, or earthworks. Disturbing fragile earthworks can cause irreparable damage.

• Stay on roads and trails to help prevent erosion and protect the mountain terrain.

• Picnicking and all recreational activities are restricted to designated areas (see map).

• Alcoholic beverages are prohibited.

• Watch for insects, snakes, and poisonous plants.

• Pets must be on leashes no longer than 6 feet. They are not allowed in the visitor center, restrooms, or shuttle bus. Clean up after your pet; use bags available in the parking lots. Protect pets from heat-related illness by keeping them cool and hydrated. Never leave pets unattended in a vehicle.

• Bicycles are prohibited on hiking trails.

• Possession or use of metal detectors is unlawful.

• For firearms regulations, check the park website.

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TEXT: Nearby Points of Interest

Southern Museum of Civil War and Locomotive History

Exhibits offer a glimpse into Civil War soldiers’ daily lives; a reproduction of an early 1900s locomotive assembly line from the Glover Machine Works; and the General, the locomotive used during the Civil War battle known as Andrews’ Raid, or the Great Locomotive Chase.


Marietta Museum of History

Housed in a cotton warehouse built in 1845, the collections focus on local history and home life.


Marietta National Cemetery

The Marietta National Cemetery is the site of over 10,000 Union graves. Hoping to heal ill feelings between North and South, Henry Green Cole (see above) donated the land for a joint cemetery, but his vision was never realized.


Marietta Confederate Cemetery

This is the final resting place for 3,000 Confederate soldiers who died in nearby hospitals and battles, including those at Kolb’s Farm and Kennesaw Mountain.


Kolb’s Farm

Peter Valentine Kolb II, one of Cobb County’s earliest settlers, built this log house in the 1830s. He ran a self-sufficient farm of about 600 acres with 10 enslaved workers. The family fled as Federal troops approached along Powder Springs Road in 1864, and only returned in the 1880s. The June 22nd battle damaged the house and destroyed several outbuildings. The house has been restored to its historic appearance.


Illinois Monument

The Illinois Monument on Cheatham Hill is the largest monument on the battlefield. Dedicated in 1914, it honors the Illinois soldiers who served. You can see the entrance to a tunnel, dug by Union soldiers, near its base. They began it intending to blow up the Confederate position with a land mine.


Georgia Monument

The Georgia Monument, dedicated in 1963 during the Civil War centennial, honors all Georgians who served. Although Georgia troops did not fight at Kennesaw, the monument is installed at the foot of the mountain.


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IMAGE: Kolb's Farm

CAPTION:

Peter Valentine Kolb II, one of Cobb County’s earliest settlers, built this log house in the 1830s. He ran a self-sufficient farm of about 600 acres with 10 enslaved workers. The family fled as Federal troops approached along Powder Springs Road in 1864, and only returned in the 1880s. The June 22nd battle damaged the house and destroyed several outbuildings. The house has been restored to its historic appearance.


DESCRIPTION:

This picture depicts an 1830's log house, built by Peter Valentine.  The picture is taken from an angle, with the left side of the house (facing the frame) more prominent than the right.  On the left side of the house are two rock chimneys, separated by a covered entryway. The chimneys are rectangular in shape at the base and then narrow inward half-way up.  The logs of the house are grayish in color, or white-washed.  The house is supported by stacked rock pillars underneath. The attic, windows, doors, and porch frames are painted a reddish-orange.  The roof is slanted and has an additional overhang at the front porch. The right side of the house has an additional rock chimney.  The house sits on green grass with yellow patches. There are small hardwood trees to the left side of the house, and a mature hardwood (but of thin diameter) with faint lavendar-colored blooms to the right of the house (the trees are probably redbud trees).  The sky is blue and cloudless. 


CREDIT:

NPS / Melinda Schmitt.

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IMAGE: Illinois Monument

CAPTION:

The Illinois Monument on Cheatham Hill is the largest monument on the battlefield.

Dedicated in 1914, it honors the Illinois soldiers who served. You can see the entrance to a tunnel, dug by Union soldiers, near its base. They began it intending to blow up the Confederate position with a land mine.


DESCRIPTION: At 25 feet tall, this lone monument  stands strategically where the Federal assault peaked on Cheatham Hill.  The monument, appearing to the left of center in the frame, is made of white marble that has grayed in color with time. The front base of the monument has staggered thin but wide columns layered on top of each other. The remainder of the monument shows cut stone marble bricks.The face of the monument has 3 standing life-size bronze figures that have faded to a patina with age, mid-way up the from the base. The middle figure represents a soldier at parade rest flanked by two women dressed in flowing Greek-style robes. At the top of the monument is an American eagle with outstretched wings. The word "Illinois" is deeply etched above the standing figures, framed by a centerpiece wreath with a cascading stone drapery at either side.  The monument sits perched on a concrete platform with concrete stair steps leading from it to the forefront of the picture. There is a partially visible tunnel, framed in concrete  and surrounded by river stones, at the forefront of the picture to the left side of the monument. A slant-faced, standing wayside with brown metal legs interprets the monument and tunnel.  Surrounding the monument is a stand of green-leafed hardwood trees with sunlight filtering through to the objects below.


CREDIT:

NPS.

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IMAGE: Georgia Monument

DESCRIPTION:

The Georgia Monument, pictured here, stands 18 feet tall and is made of light gray-colored marble.  It is three-tiered; the first tier is a thick rectangular block base. The second tier is a thinner  marble block stacked on top of the base; the third tier ascends from the 2nd tier, rising as a rectangular column. At the top of the column, running the width of the monument, is written "GEORGIA" in all caps. Below the word Georgia is a deeply engraved circular seal that reads "State of Georgia". The monument is of marble and it is scalloped around the top. "Georgia" is engraved at the top and below that is the Georgia State seal.

From the base of the stone column approximately 1/4 of the way up are the words "Georgia Confederate Soldiers". Directly below that it reads:  "We sleep here in obedience to law, when duty called, we came. When Country called, we died."

CAPTION:

The Georgia Monument, dedicated in 1963 during the Civil War centennial, honors all Georgians who served. Although Georgia troops did not fight at Kennesaw, the monument is installed at the foot of the mountain. 

CREDIT:

NPS.

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OVERVIEW: Accessibility

The visitor center offers a museum tour for people with sight or vision loss. Trails have remained natural and have not been altered. The mountain road is paved. Our ADA approved shuttle bus can accommodate special needs. We strive to make our facilities, services, and programs accessible to all. If you have special requirements call ahead: 770-427-4686, ext. 0.

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OVERVIEW: More information

Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park is one of over 400 areas in the National Park System. To learn more visit, www.nps.gov.


ADDRESS:

Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park

905 Kennesaw Mountain Drive

Kennesaw, GA 30152-4855


PHONE:

770-427-4686


WEBSITE:

www.nps.gov/kemo


MORE:

National Park Foundation

Join the park community.

www.nationalparks.org

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