Antietam National Battlefield

Audio Available:

OVERVIEW: About this Audio-Described Brochure

Welcome to the audio-described version of Antietam National Battlefield's official park brochure. Through texts, images, and maps this two page color brochure is the primary interpretive tool given to visitors at Antietam. This brochure explores the history of the park and summarizes the historical events. It is designed to provide direction for the park tour, including key points of interest, and brief summaries for each of the tour stops. This audio version is divided into 17 sections, as a way to improve the listening experience. Sections 1-8 cover the front of the brochure, last about 36 minutes, and include information regarding the historical significance of the battlefield, events leading up to the battle, images and artifacts, timelines, and the aftermath. Sections 9-17, cover the back of the brochure, last about 37 minutes, and provides summaries of Union and Confederate leaders, their forces' movements, driving tour stops and explanations, and a self-guided way finding and driving tour map.

↑ back to top

OVERVIEW: Antietam National Battlefield

Antietam National Battlefield is located in Sharpsburg, Maryland and is managed by the National Park Service, within the Department of the Interior.  Much of the managed land surrounds two-thirds of Sharpsburg with the significant areas starting a mile north of the town and then moving along the east side of town with a smaller portion half a mile southeast of town. The battlefield’s eastern border is marked by the Antietam Creek, its namesake. Each year hundreds of thousands of visitors come to visit the 3000-acre battlefield and learn about the cultural and military history of the period and battle.  Visitors are encouraged to tour the battlefield grounds and experience the same terrain civil war soldiers experienced over 150 years ago.  Key sites like the Cornfield, Bloody Lane, Burnside Bridge, and Antietam National Cemetery are vital to the story of Antietam.  For those seeking to learn more about the battlefield, audio guides and park staff can be found at the visitor center.  To find out more about available resources or to contact the park directly, visit the “Accessibility” and “More Information” sections at the end of this audio-described brochure.

↑ back to top

OVERVIEW: Front Side of Brochure

The front side of the brochure opens with four historical photographs of Antietam, that span the brochure from left to right titled; the Dunker Church, Union Burial Detail, Aftermath of the Battle: Hagerstown Pike,  and Lower Bridge (Burnside Bridge).   Underneath, in small black letters on white background, from left to right across the page is a horizontal timeline of twelve major events of the Civil War in the Eastern Theater, spanning the years 1860 - 1865.  Below the timeline, four columns of text briefly explain the events of the Maryland Campaign, that led to the historic battle of Antietam, and the bloodiest one day battle in American history.  In the middle of these four columns of text, is a map of an overhead view of the Maryland Campaign area, in Maryland and Virginia. Underneath, running horizontally across the page is a timeline of the Maryland Campaign, from early September through early October, 1862. Beneath the timeline, the lower third of the page is a collage of historical images, artifacts and text titled: Aftermath and Significance.

Detailed text, map and photo descriptions are presented under their own sections within this audio brochure.

↑ back to top

IMAGES: Antietam: the bloodiest one-day battle of the American Civil War

IMAGE 1 of 4: A photograph

DESCRIBING: A medium sized photograph 

DESCRIPTION:   This rectangular, horizontally placed historical image is a post-battle, black and white photograph.  The view is eye level, starting in the foreground, looking across several swollen human bodies lying in a grassy field, in front of a two wheeled cart centered in the photo. The grassy field continues toward the background, and the terrain rises slightly, through a fence to a small white building in the background, set slightly into a wood line around and behind it.  Beginning in the foreground, a single pair of shoes sits neatly by themselves in front of seven swollen bodies in ragged clothes, lying haphazardly, mostly on their backs, feet angled toward the foreground. The two-wheeled cart, a limber, is behind the bodies, faces to the right, has large spoked wheels, and a long pole in the front.  Centered on a platform between the two wheels is a large box, with its lid slightly open in the back.  On the far side of the long pole, and lying parallel to it, is the body of a dead horse, with its feet pointing toward the foreground.   Debris is scattered around the limber on the ground.  Behind the limber, the grassy field makes a slight dip, and then rises up through a five-rail fence that spans the photo. The fence has a gap at the far left, also at the far right, and a broken section in the center.  Past the fence, the grassy field continues to rise to a small white, square building, with a view of the front and left side.  The steep pitched shingled roof has a small white chimney protruding from the center of the peak. In front of the building, a step leads up to an open front door, with a window on either side. The left window is open slightly, while the right is shuttered. Above and slightly to the right of the door is a large rectangular shaped hole in the wall.  The door on the left side of the building is open, with a shuttered window on either side.  Above the windows, near the roof are two additional and smaller windows. There are several holes, one very large, in the wall around and between the small windows. A riderless horse stands in front of the open doorway.  The white building is nestled into a wood line that surrounds it and fills the background of the photo.  

CAPTION: Dunker Church 

CREDIT: Library of Congress

IMAGE 2 of 4:  A photograph

DESCRIBING: A small, square photograph

DESCRIPTION:  The image is a square shaped, sepia-toned, historical photograph, half the width of the previous photo.   The viewer is looking up a small rise with a single scraggly tree with exposed roots in the foreground, surrounded by grass and rocks. The tree's trunk is initially very straight, and then at about a person's height bends 45 degrees to the left, before forming the crown of scraggly leafless branches that spans the entire width of the photo.  Past the tree, on the top of the rise and silhouetted by the sky, two uniformed soldiers stand at attention, facing to the viewers left, with rifles over their left shoulders, as if on guard. The trunk of the tree in the foreground separates the two soldiers in the background.  A third soldier, slightly nearer the camera, is laying on the ground, resting on his left arm, and facing toward the camera.  A fourth soldier, stands further to the right in the distant background, hat off, hands in front of him, and he is leaning on an object, like a handle, with his left elbow.  At the base of the tree,  below the exposed roots in the foreground is a single headstone facing the viewer, and in front of the headstone, a mound of dirt.

CAPTION: Union Burial Detail 

CREDIT: Library of Congress

IMAGE 3 of 4:  A photograph

DESCRIBING: A small, square photograph 

DESCRIPTION:  The small square black and white historical photograph is of a post-battle scene, and the same size as the previous photo. The image is eye level, looking down a long grassy area with a six-rail fence on the right and a dirt lane on the left, and a macabre scene of dead and bloated bodies, and debris, laying on the ground in between. The clothed bodies are strewn throughout the entire depth of the photo, mostly face up, some with arms and legs bent in unnatural positions. A dirt lane comes in from the left in the top third of the photo, and parallels the fence. Both the fence and lane disappear over a rise in the distance. In the foreground, between the top two rails of the fence to the viewers right, part of a second fence is visible, and slightly blurry in the background. In the far distance, a hazy tree line spans the horizon under a gray sky.

CAPTION: Aftermath of the Battle, Hagerstown Pike 

CREDIT: Library of Congress

IMAGE 4 of 4: A photograph

DESCRIBING: A medium, horizontal photograph 

DESCRIPTION: The fourth image is a rectangular, sepia-toned historical photograph,  the same size as the first image. The viewer is standing in the foreground, on the gravel shore of a creek, looking across smooth water at the span of a three arch stone bridge with water beneath all three arches.   The bridge is constructed of horizontally placed stone, with the exception of the vertical stones forming the arches. On the top of the bridge wall, a dark colored cap runs along the entire span. Closer toward the foreground, on the left side of the bridge, part of a large, leafy tree crown hangs out over the creek.  Shifting to the right, a shrubby bush blocks the view of the support column between the first two arches. Further right, the blurry reflection of the bridge, tree line, and sky behind it, is mirrored in the water.  Looking through the right two arches, the water disappears as it merges with the stream bank in the background.   The right shoreline is grassy and climbs to meet the right side of the bridge.The branch of a leafy tree hangs out over the water on the right side. In the background the sun is low in the sky, just above the photo, but leaves a soft light through the trees, that fill most of the back ground of the photo, except for a large cut in the center.

CAPTION: Lower bridge (Burnside Bridge)

CREDIT: Library of Congress

RELATED TEXT: Antietam: the bloodiest one-day battle of the American Civil War

↑ back to top

TIMELINE: Civil War–Eastern theater highlights

Beneath the photos, a timeline of major Civil War events in the Eastern Theater spans the page in a narrow band of twelve entries, starting from the left:

Secession from the Union begins

December 1860

Lincoln inaugurated; Confederates attack Fort Sumter

March–April 1861

First Battle of Manassas (Bull Run)

July 1861

Second Battle of Manassas (Bull Run)

August 1862

Maryland Campaign

Battle of Antietam (Sharpsburg)

September 1862

Battle of Fredericksburg

December 1862

Emancipation Proclamation

January 1863

Battle of Chancellorsville

May 1863

Battle of Gettysburg

July 1863

Battles of Wilderness & Spotsylvania Court House

May 1864

Siege of Petersburg

June 1864–April 1865

Lee surrenders; Lincoln assassinated

April 1865

↑ back to top


IMAGE 1 of 1

DESCRIBING:  A medium, square map. 

DESCRIPTION:  Sandwiched between the timeline above, and a second timeline below, are four columns of text, and a colorful square map centered between them with, “Prelude to the Battle of Antietam (Sharpsburg),” typed in the narrow black margin at the top of the map. The map is the same height and width as each of the two columns of text to its left, and the two to its right. The map view is from overhead, of small portions of Maryland and Virginia, and orients the viewer to the major terrain features, and the locations of fighting at South Mountain and Harpers Ferry, preceding the battle at Sharpsburg. The map is split diagonally by the Potomac River, depicted in blue, and is the border between Maryland and Virginia. It winds its way from the upper left corner in Maryland, the area above the river, to the lower right corner in Virginia. Two long lines of mountains start nearly together at the upper right of the map, and spread farther apart as they pass through Maryland and Virginia to the bottom of the map, like an unbroken wishbone. The line of mountains to the left is labeled South Mountain, and runs diagonally to the lower left corner of the map. Above the river, in the top third of the line of hills forming South Mountain, are three bright yellow explosion flash images, with orange borders. The top flash is labeled Turners Gap, just below is a second flash labeled Fox Gap, and spaced a little farther below is Crampton Gap. Further down the map, South Mountain crosses the Potomac River perpendicularly, before disappearing off the edge of the map. The line of hills to the right of South Mountain, labeled Catoctin Mountain, runs vertically to the lower right center of the map, also crosses the Potomac River at a perpendicular angle, before being cut off at the bottom of the map. A third and shorter line of mountains, labeled Maryland Heights, runs parallel and to the left of the lower end of South Mountain, is half its length, and is cut off by the lower left edge of the map. Maryland Heights crosses the Potomac River at another yellow flash and a town labeled Harpers Ferry. Three towns on the map are listed in larger bold print, and form a triangular shape. Hagerstown, in Maryland, is at the top, Harpers Ferry in Virginia, on the lower left, and Frederick, MD to the lower right. On the left, between Hagerstown and Harpers Ferry a small stream labeled Antietam Creek, starts near Hagerstown, continues down the map, emptying into the Potomac River above Harpers Ferry. Also, between Hagerstown and Harpers Ferry are three smaller towns, two in Maryland: Boonsboro closest to Hagerstown, and Sharpsburg in large red text, which is below Boonsboro and near the intersection of Antietam Creek and the Potomac River. The third, Shepherdstown, is slightly below and to the left of Sharpsburg on the Virginia side of a sharp bend in the Potomac River.

RELATED TEXT: A year and a half into the Civil War, Union victory was far from assured. Confederate forces were fighting successfully in the Eastern Theater (comprising operations mainly in Virginia). After his victory at the Second Battle of Manassas (Bull Run), Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee decided to move his army out of war-torn Virginia. On September 4, 1862, he led his over 40,000 Con­­federates across the Potomac River and through the lush Maryland countryside to Frederick.

Lee’s Maryland Campaign—his first foray onto Union soil—was the most significant in a series of loosely coordinated Confederate incursions along a 1,000-mile front. Lee intended to keep moving north into Pennsylvania, but his line of supply and communication into Virginia was threatened by the 12,500-man Union garrison at Harpers Ferry, Va. (now West Virginia). Lee therefore divided his army to neutralize this threat. Part of Gen. James Longstreet’s command went to Hagerstown, Md., close to Pennsylvania. Three columns led by Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson surrounded Harpers Ferry and held Crampton Gap on South Mountain (see map at right). A third force, Gen. D.H. Hill’s command, guarded the South Mountain gaps near Boonsboro, Md.

On September 12, Union Gen. George B. McClellan led the Army of the Poto­mac into Frederick, Md., just as the last Confederate soldiers were departing. Over the next few days a chain of events would draw all of these men together for the bloodiest one-day battle of the Civil War.

On September 13 a Union soldier found a copy of Lee’s Special Order 191, his plan of operations for the campaign. This “Lost Order,” as it has become known, was taken to McClellan, who realized that this was the time to strike Lee’s divided forces. On the morning of September 14, Union soldiers en­gaged Confederates guarding the gaps on South Mountain. The day-long battle ended with the Confederates being forced from the gaps.

Lee considered returning to Virginia, but on September 15, after learning that Harpers Ferry had fallen, he reevaluated his plans. He would make a stand at Sharpsburg, Md., a quiet, 100-year-old farming community of some 1,200 residents.


QUOTE: That night we lay in line of battle behind a small brick church called the Dunkers Church, situated on the Hagerstown Turnpike, with arms, and ready to move at any moment.

—William Snakenberg, Private, 14th Louisiana

↑ back to top

TIMELINE: Maryland Campaign

A narrow timeline, titled "MARYLAND CAMPAIGN," spans the page, and lists thirteen events of the Maryland Campaign occurring from September 2 - October 4, 1862.  Beginning from the left:

Union General McClellan placed in command and leads army out of Washington, D.C. 

September 2–5, 1862

Confederate General Lee crosses Potomac and marches to Frederick, Md. 

September 4–6, 1862

Confederates move toward Boonsboro, Hagerstown, and Maryland Heights

September 10, 1862

Union forces arrive in Frederick

September 12, 1862

McClellan obtains a copy of Lee’s operations plan, Special Order 191

September 13, 1862

Battle of South Mountain; Union takes Crampton, Fox, and Turners gaps; siege of Harpers Ferry

September 14, 1862

Harpers Ferry surrenders; Lee orders concentration of his army at Sharpsburg

September 15, 1862

Union troops cross Antietam Creek, engage Lee’s left, 6 pm

September 16, 1862

Battle of Antietam (Sharpsburg)

September 17, 1862

Lee withdraws his army; recrosses Potomac River at Blackford’s Ford

Evening, September 18, 1862

Battle of Shepherdstown

September 19–20, 1862

Lincoln issues the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation

September 22, 1862

Lincoln visits Union Army in and around Sharpsburg

October 1–4, 1862

↑ back to top

COLLAGE, QUOTE AND TEXT: Aftermath and significance

This section, titled "Aftermath and Significance," is a rectangular shaped collage of texts, historical photographs, and images of historical artifacts, in black and white, color, and sepia-toned finishes, spanning the lower third of the page.  Starting from the left and moving down and across toward the right, the description follows:

IMAGE 1 of 11: A church

DESCRIBING: A small black and white photograph.

DESCRIPTION:  A black and white historical post-battle photograph of the damaged Sharpsburg Lutheran Church. The viewer is standing in a grassy area beneath a tree branch, across a dirt road from the left front of a white church. A steep grassy bank borders the road on the church side, and leads up to the church, perched on the higher ground.  A two story square bell tower sits on the front peak of the shingled roof. The top of the tower is notched, resembling the notched top of a castle tower. The tower's lower level has shuttered windows on the front and left wall. The upper level has open windows. Several steps lead up to the centered door on the front of the church, with a window on each side. Above the door is a broken third window. The front wall has several holes and chipped plaster. On the left wall, around and above the two broken windows, there are several holes in the wall, and large portions of the white plaster are chipped away, leaving large dark exposed patches of the under layer. Below the church and closer to the foreground, the dirt road passes in front of the viewer, from left to right, and descends down hill toward more white buildings below. A six-rail fence runs from the left side of the church along the top of the grassy bank, and is cut off by the left edge of the photo. To the right of the church, a white picket fence runs along the top of the grassy bank and down the hill, connecting to the fence of the next house. Behind the fence a small leafy tree grows in the yard, and two branches of another tree peek out past the right side of the church's roof line. The distant houses and background fade away near the darkened edges of the photograph. The letters "EY" are penned in the upper right corner of the photograph, with a gap in a tree branch framing the letters.

CAPTION: Sharpsburg Lutheran Church was damaged in the battle

CREDIT: Library of Congress

RELATED TEXT:  For the people of Sharpsburg, the battle and presence of thousands of soldiers caused sickness and death from disease, and great property damage. Antietam made feasible the Emancipation Proclamation and reshaped the logistics of field medicine. It also influenced how the nation would memorialize battlefields in the future.

IMAGE 2 of 11: Grave site

DESCRIBING: A small photograph 

DESCRIPTION:  A rectangular, horizontally placed, sepia-toned historical photograph, with the upper right corner overlapped by the picture of the church above, and the lower right corner overlapped by the image of the journal below.  In the foreground, a mounded dirt area gives way to six plain grave markers in front of a stone wall that spans from left to right across the center third of the photo.  The chest high stone wall is composed of random shaped stones stacked horizontally. Very large rocks are placed side by side along the top of the wall.  A dark bearded soldier in uniform poses for the photo, facing the camera and leaning against the stone wall and resting on his left elbow. His right arm is bent and his hand rests on his right hip.  Behind the soldier, the top part of an arch of a stone bridge, is visible through some thin leaved tree branches.

CAPTION: Bridge planks mark temporary Union graves at Lower Bridge

CREDIT: Library of Congress

IMAGE 3 of 11: Cemetery Journal

DESCRIBING: A cut out color photograph

DESCRIPTION: The upper left corner of a dark gray book, with a stained and weathered cover, and a wide brown covered spine, overlaps the lower right corner of the previous image. The upper right corner of the cover is faded an orangish brown.  A rectangular red label with white border and lettering reading "RECORD OF ANTIETAM NATIONAL CEMETERY" is centered on the cover. The upper left corner of the book image overlaps the lower right corner of the previous image of the graves.


RELATED TEXT: Immediately after the battle over 3,500 dead were buried in farm fields surrounding Sharpsburg. Eventually, Confederate soldiers were moved to three local cemeteries. Union men were re-interred in Antietam National Cemetery, their names (if known) recorded in the book at right.

IMAGE 4 of 11: Portrait of Clara Barton

DESCRIBING: An oval sepia-toned photo

DESCRIPTION:  An oval shaped, historical, head and shoulder studio photograph of Clara Barton, on flat background, that appears reddish brown due to the sepia tone, sits slightly higher and to the right of the previous image of the church. She is facing slightly to her right, with her head turned back to the left, looking directly at the camera. This 30-something Caucasian woman has neatly combed black hair, parted in the middle and bound tightly to her head. Her hair surrounds her smooth white complexion, and lays neatly above the lacy white collar on her dark blouse. Three dark round beads are attached to the back of her hair, below and behind her left ear.  She has tired dark eyes, turned down slightly at the corners, with a strong but concerned look. Her lips are closed in a flat smile, and has a small dimple in her chin.  A small oval brooch, with a dark stone set in a light backing, is pinned at the collar, in line with a vertical row of five small smooth, round, shiny buttons running down the center of her top. Her blouse has a lighter color fringe placed horizontally across the lower chest, that looks like overlapping vines.

CREDIT: Library of Congress

RELATED TEXT: Seeing the bandages, lanterns, and food Clara Barton (above)  brought to his Antietam hospital, Surgeon Charles Dunn christened her “The Angel of the Battlefield.” In 1881 Barton founded the American Red Cross. She not only provided neutral assistance to soldiers in war but conceived and put into practice the provision of aid to civilians after natural disasters.

IMAGE 5 of 11:  A photo

DESCRIBING: A small black and white photograph

DESCRIPTION: A smaller black and white version of the Union Burial Detail from the top of the brochure, is used as a background photo in the collage, and is faded and nearly transparent, except for the single mound of dirt in front of the single white gravestone at the base of the tree. The mound of dirt and gravestone in front of the base of the tree, as the only objects in the photo that are not faded, tend to draw in the viewer's attention. In the background, two soldiers stand at attention, facing to the right with rifles over their shoulders, and separated by the tree in the foreground.  A third soldier stands farther in the background, and leans on an object with his left arm.   A fourth is lying down a little more in the foreground, chest up and leaning on his left shoulder, in the foreground of the two soldiers at attention. All are silhouetted, faded against the white background of the brochure.


IMAGE 6 of 11: A hand saw

DESCRIBING: A black and white photo

DESCRIPTION: The small black and white, cut out historical photograph is of a metal hand saw, with a black D-handle on the viewers left. A metal spine extends from the handle, and runs across the top of the wide, dark gray blade extending to the right. Cutting teeth on the bottom extend the length of the blade. To the right, the tip of the saw is worn to a light gray color, rounded to a dull point, and overlaps the picture to its right in the collage.

CAPTION: Field surgeon's bone saw


RELATED TEXT: QUOTE: “Comrades with wounds of all conceivable shapes were brought in and placed side by side as thick as they could lay, and the bloody work of amputation commenced.” —Union Soldier George Allen

IMAGE 7 of 11: A field hospital

DESCRIBING: A black and white background photograph

DESCRIPTION: This black and white historical image is a horizontally placed oblong background photo, a faded image of an outdoor field hospital, viewed from eye level.  It is the largest  image of the collage, is centered, and merges in with the text that surrounds its perimeter.  The hospital is in an open area, and is composed of a group of several ragged temporary tent-like structures of poles with cloth strung over them haphazardly.  Hay or straw is on the ground in small clumps and also on the ground inside some of the make shift tents. In the foreground a couple of boots sit on the ground in front of one of the tents. The nearest tent in the foreground is open and the clothed left knee of a person sticks up. In the center, a lone uniformed and bearded soldier in light pants, dark coat, and rimmed hat stands facing in the direction of the camera, arms down at his sides. Farther back, another uniformed soldier faces away from the camera, with his right arm up resting on poles that mark the open end of a larger lean-to type structure. In the background, beyond the tents and lean-to, rows of a crop in a field lead to faded woods in the back of the photo.

RELATED TEXT: Hospitals were set up in barns, churches, homes, and make-shift tents to care for over 17,000 wounded soldiers. The Hagerstown newspaper called the area “one vast hospital.”

CREDIT: Library of Congress

IMAGE 8 of 11: Man on crutches

DESCRIBING: A sepia-toned photograph

DESCRIPTION:  This is a posed, rectangular, vertically placed, sepia-toned historical photograph of a uniformed white soldier inside a room. He is standing facing the camera, supported by two crutches, one under each armpit, hands gripping the crutch handles. The soldier is standing in front of a dingy stained plain wall, with a patterned rug on the floor, and a dark curtain hooked in the upper right corner, draping down behind his feet. He is clean shaven, with dark shiny hair hanging slightly over his ears. He has a high squared forehead, and his oval face is flat lipped and expressionless. All but the top button are open on his dark uniform coat, revealing a buttoned vest of the same color underneath, and a short white collar of the shirt beneath. His left leg is back slightly with its shoe slightly hidden by the right pant leg, which hangs, empty, in front. The picture is overlapped slightly from the center left, by the tip of the bone saw from the previous image.


RELATED TEXT: The battle created a legion of amputees(above). The shovel(far right) buried many dead, who often awaited burial for days, laid out(right) as though they died in their battle ranks.

IMAGE 9 of 11: Line of dead bodies in field

DESCRIBING: A black and white photograph

DESCRIPTION: This is a rectangular sepia-toned historical photograph. The image is eye level, looking across an open field, with a line of many clothed bodies, too many to count, placed and lying side by side. The line of corpses starts in the right foreground, and continues toward the first of two prominent trees in the photo, a shorter one in the left background. The line of bodies then bends about 45 degrees to the viewers right and continues on, ending even with the second tree. The field continues to the horizon where a distant faded tree marks the meeting of ground and sky. The border of the photo has blackened and aged areas. A thin black line mars the photo, entering from the right side, going toward but short of the line of bodies, before bending and moving vertically up and out of the top center of the photo. The handle from the cut out photo of a shovel below in the collage, sticks up and cuts through the right side of the photograph.

CREDIT: Library of Congress

IMAGE 10 of 11: Shovel

DESCRIBING: A color cut out photograph

DESCRIPTION:This color historical cut out photo of a shovel cuts through the right side of the image of the bodies above, through the timeline above that, and ends with its lightly grained, tan colored wooden Dee handle at the end of the quote by Private William Snakenberg in the section above. The Dee handle has an illegible hand written note on a light piece of paper stuck across its face. The handle is a single piece of wood, connected to a metal scoop at its base, by three fasteners. The flat long rectangular scoop of the shovel is rusty, and the end is worn to a rough edge from digging.


RELATED TEXT:  A revolution in combat medical care was put in place just weeks before this battle. Dr. Jonathan Letterman, chief medical officer, Union Army of the Potomac, established an ambulance corps to evacuate the wounded. He also adopted triage—a system of prioritizing casualties by the severity of their wounds.

IMAGE 11 of 11: Emancipation Proclamation

DESCRIBING: A medium, cut-out photograph

DESCRIPTION:   This medium sized, cut-out historical image, is of the upper section of an off white, aged, dingy looking page or cover with hand writing on it.  The image is cut off at an angle by the bottom right of the brochure, with the smaller part to the left and the larger area to the right.  Across the top and slightly off center to the right on the top few inches of the page, are three hand written lines. The top line reads;, "By the President of the United States of America. Centered below that, the second line reads, "A Proclamation." The first word of the third line is cut out, and the rest of the line reads, "the twenty-second day of...;" at which point the rest of the text is cut off by the bottom of the collage and brochure.  

CREDIT: Library of Congress

RELATED TEXT: The Emancipation Proclamation, released January 1, 1863, reshaped the war, freeing slaves in states in rebellion and giving the Union war effort two goals: preserve the Union and end slavery. Slaves could flee to Union camps and freedom or even join U.S. fighting forces. Lee’s repulse at Antietam enabled the proclamation, and the two events kept Great Britain from intervening for the Confederacy.

↑ back to top

OVERVIEW: Back Side of Brochure

The back of the brochure is broken down into four sections. The top section is a general text summary of the battle of Antietam, and the events that transpired. Directly below the summary are ten portrait images of the military leadership during the battle. To the left are five red-tinted Confederate generals and to the right five blue tinted Union generals. Below the Confederate leadership on the left are three miniature battlefield maps highlighting keys areas of fighting with general troop movements and locations labeled on each map. Below these maps eleven numbered summaries briefly explain each of the tour stops on the main battlefield map tour route. On the right, below the Union leadership is a way finding and battlefield tour map, and visitor information. The map details the prominent highways, the driving tour route, battlefield points of interest, key terrain, and location relative to other towns. Below the map further battlefield information, other related landmarks, safety regulations, and more information is provided in the lower right corner of the page.

↑ back to top

QUOTE AND TEXT: The battle of Antietam

IMAGE: Quote

DESCRIBING: Quote by Union Pvt. David L. Thompson

DESCRIPTION:  The top of the brochure leads off with a half inch wide black margin spanning the page horizontally, and containing a quote in white lettering, that is part of a longer text:

QUOTE: “. . . when bullets are cracking skulls like eggshells, the consuming passion . . . is to get out of the way.” – Union Pvt. David L. Thompson

Below the Thompson quote, a two-inch wide section spans the page. It is light gray across the top slowly fading to white by the bottom of the section. This text section is broken down into five equally sized rectangular areas. The first section, on the left, contains the title in black lettering in the upper left corner; "The Battle of Antietam."  The other four sections of text, continuing from left to right, briefly describe the military actions starting on September 15 and ending with the outcome on September 18. 

RELATED TEXT: On September 15, 1862, Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee positioned his army along a ridge west of Antietam Creek. Confederate Gen. James Longstreet commanded the line’s center and right, and Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson held its left. Behind them a Potomac River ford allowed retreat to Virginia. On September 15 and 16 Union Gen. George B. McClellan deployed his forces east of the creek. His plan: attack Lee’s left and when “matters looked favorably” attack the Confederate right. Succeeding in either he hoped to strike Lee’s center. His plan was good but his instructions to commanders ambiguous. The 12-hour battle began at dawn, September 17. Three morning Union attacks struck the Confederate left, north to south. Gen. Joseph Hooker’s First Corps made the initial assault, followed by Gen. Joseph Mansfield’s Twelfth Corps. Part of Gen. Edwin Sumner’s Second Corps made the final attack. McClellan’s battle plan broke down in uncoordinated advances. From 6 am until 10 am savage combat raged across the Cornfield, East Woods, and West Woods. By late morning fighting shifted toward the Confederate center (Sunken Road) in a three-hour stalemate that left the road forever known as “Bloody Lane.” Most contested of the three bridges Union forces used to cross Antietam Creek was the lower.  At 10 am Union Gen. Ambrose Burnside’s Ninth Corps began its assaults on the Lower Bridge. By 1 pm Federals had driven the Confederates from the bluff overlooking the creek. Over the next two hours Burnside moved his men across the bridge and deployed them. When he again advanced on the Confederate right, Gen. A.P. Hill’s reinforcements, arriving in late afternoon from Harpers Ferry, stopped him. The battle ended about 6 pm. The lines of battle had not shifted significantly from that morning. Of nearly 100,000 soldiers engaged in battle, about 23,000 were killed, wounded, or missing. Late on September 18, Lee forded the Potomac to Virginia. The Union Army held the field.

↑ back to top

IMAGES: Confederate leadership

Beneath the text about the Battle of Antietam, is a narrow band of ten photos. On the left half are five equal sized, sepia-toned photos, with a red tint.  At the upper left of the photos, the title reads: CONFEDERATE LEADERSHIP.

IMAGE 1 of 5:  Robert E. Lee

DESCRIBING: A small photograph 

DESCRIPTION:  A posed, rectangular, sepia-toned, historic upper chest and head photograph of Confederate General Robert E. Lee, in military uniform.  He is in front of a black background, facing slightly to his right, left shoulder nearest the camera, with his head turned slightly back to the left, and facing the lens. Lee, an upper middle-aged white male of medium build, has a high forehead, with light colored hair parted on his left, and combed neatly over to his right.  His light hair curls out above his ears, and forms gray sideburns that blend into a gray beard and mustache. Lee has a smooth white complexion, flat closed lips, and a serious look in his dark set eyes. He wears a neat medium dark military jacket with three stars on the collar. He has a single shiny button on his left chest with part of another peeking out from under his left lapel which has several horizontal slots cut into it.Inside the open area at the top of his coat, two additional buttons are fastened on another piece of his uniform, and a bow tie gives way to the white collar of his shirt.

CAPTION: Robert E. Lee

CREDIT: Library of Congress

IMAGE 2 of 5: Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson

DESCRIBING: A small photograph

DESCRIPTION:  A posed rectangular sepia-toned historic photograph of the upper chest and head of Confederate General Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson. In front of a light, flat background, he is facing and looking to his right front with his left shoulder closest to the camera.  A middle-aged slender white male, Jackson has a high forehead, with a widows peak formed by his combed back black hair. His hair merges with black sideburns and continues into a mustache and full beard that covers the front collar of his military coat. Jackson stares off to his right, has a weathered face with prominent cheekbones, and a furrowed brow.  His jacket looks worn and faded, and has three stars on the short vertical collar. His right sleeve is folded and wrinkled as if empty. Jacksons coat has two vertical rows of buttons, side by side, and spaced symmetrically in four sets of two. 

CAPTION: Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson

CREDIT: Library of Congress

IMAGE 3 of 5: James Longstreet

DESCRIBING: A small photograph

DESCRIPTION:  A posed rectangular sepia-toned historic photograph of the upper chest and head of Confederate General James Longstreet. He is sitting center frame from the shoulders up with a white background behind him, and the photo is faded in the corners.  Longstreet is a middle-aged, larger white male, facing and looking slightly to his right. He has a receding hairline, and long dark hair that covers his ears and reaches the back of his neck. His dark hair is neatly parted on his left, and combed over to his right side. Longstreet's beard seems to start from just below his ears and forms a full mustache, and the large bushy beard hides his entire mouth, chin, the front of his collar and the top four buttons on the front of his coat. He has a smooth white complexion, and a determined look in his eyes. His worn and faded gray military coat has two vertical rows of two buttons each, the top two barely visible through the bottom of his beard. His collar is completely covered by his hair and beard, except for a glimpse of a star on his left side.

CAPTION: James Longstreet

CREDIT: Library of Congress

IMAGE 4 of 5: Daniel H. Hill

DESCRIBING: A small photograph

DESCRIPTION: A posed rectangular sepia-toned historic photograph of the upper chest and head of Confederate General Daniel H. Hill, in military uniform. He is sitting center frame viewed from the shoulders up with a white background behind him. A slender white male in early middle-age, Hill's head and shoulders are turned very slightly to his right, although his eyes are shifted back toward the camera.  He has flat dark hair combed to his left side, stopping above his ears.  Hill has a smooth complexion, with dark furrowed eyebrows, flat closed lip expression, and a serious look. His thin sideburns transition into a neatly trimmed full beard and mustache.  Hills coat has two stars on the collar which has light colored trim on the edges, and is open in the front.  The jacket is buttoned up to the collar, and has two vertical rows of buttons, side by side, and spaced symmetrically in four sets of two.

CAPTION: Daniel H. Hill

CREDIT: Library of Congress

IMAGE 5 of 5: Ambrose P. Hill

DESCRIBING: A small photograph

DESCRIPTION:  A posed rectangular sepia-toned historic photograph of the upper chest and head of Confederate General Ambrose P. Hill.  Facing and looking to his left front, Hill is a white middle-aged male, wearing a heavy, light colored coat with dark trim on the edges and two stars on his lapel. Tucked inside his coat, he wears a checkered scarf.  Hill has long dark hair on a high forehead, parted on his right side and combed over to his left. Curled in the back and on the sides, his shiny hair forms sideburns that merge into a mustache and full beard, which covers the front of his collar. Hill has a smooth complexion, prominent cheekbones, sharp nose, and dark set eyes of a serious nature.

CAPTION: Ambrose P. Hill

CREDIT: Library of Congress

↑ back to top

IMAGES: Union leadership

Beneath the text about the Battle of Antietam, is a narrow band of ten photos. On the right half are five equal sized, sepia-toned photos, all with a blue tint. At the upper left of the photos, the title reads: UNION LEADERSHIP.

IMAGE 1 of 5: George B. McClellan

DESCRIBING: A small photograph

DESCRIPTION:  A rectangular, historic photograph of Union Major General George B. McClellan. He is shown in a studio photograph, head and upper chest, wearing a dark military uniform coat with a light background.  Posing for the camera, McClellan, a  white male of medium build, in his mid to upper 30's, is turned and facing slightly to his right.  He has shiny oil-black hair parted on his left side, combed over neatly to his right, and hangs slightly over his ears.  McClellan is clean shaven except for a thick black mustache, and a tiny goatee just under his lower lip.  He has a smooth fleshy complexion, thin furrowed eyebrows, and a stern and determined look on his face.  His uniform coat is fastened at the collar, with a glimpse of a white shirt peeking over the top. Two vertical rows, each with six shiny round buttons, spaced in groups of three, are centered down the front of his coat.  Partially visible in the front and conforming to the curve of his shoulders, McClellan wears a rectangular shaped insignia with a star in the center and a matching fringe around the edge.

CAPTION: George B. McClellan

CREDIT: Library of Congress

IMAGE 2 of 5: Joseph Hooker

DESCRIBING: A small photograph

DESCRIPTION:  A rectangular historic photograph of upper torso and head of Union General Joseph Hooker. He is posed, sitting center frame, facing and looking to his right, and re clined slightly.  Hooker is a middle aged white male with thin, short light hair that forms a small widows peak on his receding hairline. He has wispy light colored sideburns on an otherwise clean-shaven face.  Hooker has tired circles under his eyes, a slight squint, and a serious look with a closed mouth turned slightly downward at the corners.  His uniform coat is fastened at the collar, with a bit of a white shirt collar at the top. Two vertical rows, each with six shiny round buttons, spaced in groups of three, are centered down the front of his coat. Hookers coat has a few horizontal furls by the buttons, as if it is too tight.  Partially visible in the front and conforming to the curve of his shoulders, Hooker wears a rectangular shaped insignia with a star in the center and a matching fringe around the edge.

CAPTION: Joseph Hooker

CREDIT: Library of Congress,

IMAGE 3 of 5:  Joseph K.F. Mansfield

DESCRIBING: A small  photograph

DESCRIPTION:  A rectangular upper torso and head photo of a General Joseph Mansfield portrait, posed facing and looking slightly to his right, with a light background. He is a slender, upper middle-aged white male in dark military uniform coat.  Mansfield has a high forehead, but above that, thick and wavy, light colored hair comes down over his ears and the back of his neck. He also has a full mustache and a robust beard that extends down covering the front of his coat collar.  Mansfield has a smooth tanned complexion, with bags under his eyes, and closed lips turned downward at the corners with a serious expression. His dark uniform coat has two vertical rows of four bright colored buttons each, centered on his coat, and grouped in sets of four.  The epaulets on his shoulders are the same color as his coat, with light trimmed edges, a shiny button near his collar, a light colored star in the center, and a long fringe at the ends with pieces the same color as the edging.

CAPTION: Joseph K.F. Mansfield

CREDIT: Library of Congress

IMAGE 4 of 5: Edwin V. Sumner

DESCRIBING: A small photograph

DESCRIPTION:  A rectangular, historic photograph of the Union General Edwin Sumner.  It is a posed portrait style, upper torso and head, with Sumner angled and looking to his left.  He is an upper middle-aged slender white male in military uniform.  He has a receding hairline of light hair, parted on his right and combed over to his left, with curls out over his ears and the back of his neck. He has full sideburns, mustache and beard the same color as his hair.  Sumner has crows feet at the corners of his eyes, bags under his eyes, and a smooth but weathered complexion. Sumner has a closed lip expression and eyes that stare into the distance with a determined look.  His dark uniform coat has two vertical rows of five brightly colored buttons, the top three on each side grouped together. The fifth button down on his right side is unbuttoned. On the outside of his shoulders, the front half of rectangular shaped insignia with a star in the center and a matching fringe around the edge is visible, and conforms to the rounded shape of his shoulders.

CAPTION: Edwin V. Sumner

CREDIT: Library of Congress

IMAGE 5 of 5: Ambrose E. Burnside

DESCRIBING: A small photograph

DESCRIPTION:  This is a rectangular, historic photo of Union General Ambrose Burnside, a middle-aged white male, of medium build and broad shoulders, in dark military uniform. This is a posed portrait style head and upper chest photo, with a medium background, body facing the camera, but with his head turned and looking off to his right.   Burnside's bright balding head is very prominent, balding in the center, no hair visible at the top, with short dark hair extending down the sides. His dark hair continues down around his ears and transitions into huge dark bushy sideburns and mustache.  Burnside has a smooth white fleshy complexion, with dark set eyes, and a closed lipped expressionless tone. His dark uniform coat is buttoned at the top and has two vertical rows of five brightly colored buttons, the top three on each side grouped together. The lower two buttons on his right side are unbuttoned.  Centered between the upper three and lower two buttons on his left side, and offset further to the left is a ribbon with three vertical stripes and a medallion hanging at the bottom.  The top of his white shirt collar sticks up slightly above the top of his coat collar.  On the outside of Burnside's shoulders, the front half of a rectangular shaped insignia with a star in the center and a matching fringe around the edge is visible, and conforms to the rounded shape of his shoulders.

CAPTION: Ambrose E. Burnside

CREDIT: Library of Congress

↑ back to top

MAPS: Touring Antietam Battlefield

 The lower 2/3 of the page is split in half vertically. At the top of the left side are three square color maps.  In the upper left corner is the title; "TOURING ANTIETAM BATTLEFIELD" in uppercase white print. Each map, is a miniature replica of the main tour map on the right half of the page, minus the tour stop and way finding information. The purpose is to show the location and direction of movement of the Confederate and Union forces on the battlefield during the three main phases of the battle; the Cornfield and West Woods, the Sunken Road, and the Lower Bridge (Burnside Bridge.) The basic layout for each map is the same: The top of each map is north. The background of each map is an almost white shade of light green, with faint images of the Potomac River, Antietam Creek, and two roads, one running north south, and the other southwest to northeast, intersecting in the town of Sharpsburg. The area of the battlefield is highlighted in green. Moving from left to right across the map, the key is in the upper left corner, with red indicating Confederate forces, and blue indicating Union forces. The Potomac River, in the background in faded light blue, winds its way in large S curves from the upper left of the map, down to the lower left. Just right of the map center, the area of the battlefield is highlighted in light green. The battlefield is long and narrow, a random choppy shape, and generally runs vertically from near the top of the map, almost to the bottom of the map. On the lower left, just on the west edge of the battlefield is the town of Sharpsburg. In the upper right of the map, Antietam creek, highlighted in a faded light blue line, winds its way from the upper right to lower right of the map, and forms the right or east border of the battlefield. A thin gray line, indicating a road, runs vertically from the top center of the map, down along the left or west side of the battlefield, straight down through the town of Sharpsburg and then continues off the map. Another road comes from the lower left side, diagonally up though Sharpsburg, dissects the battlefield, and then continues off the upper right side of the map.

MAP 1 of 3:  Cornfield and West Woods

DESCRIBING: A small square map 

DESCRIPTION:  The color map on the left is an aerial view titled "Cornfield and West Woods." The purpose is to show the movement and positions of Union and Confederate forces during the fighting at the Cornfield and West Woods.  Starting near the bottom of the map on the lower right side, a long red arrow runs north along the road paralleling the left or west side of the battlefield, passing through the town of Sharpsburg. At the base of the arrow, the name "Walker" is written in small red text.  Just above Walker, and just left of the arrow stem, "LONGSTREET" is written in large red uppercase font.  The arrow continues north until it's about halfway up the map, and intersects with a short red arrow coming from the southwest to the northeast. "McClaws" is written in red text at the intersection of the two arrows.  The short arrow crosses the top of the longer arrow like a "T" and points to the northeast at a short diagonal red bar perpendicular to its path. Just beyond the red bar is a small black square labeled "Dunker Church." After a break in the arrow by Dunker Church, it continues a short distance further to the northeast, crossing another perpendicular red bar, before stopping.  A third, and very short red arrow, runs from west to east and points at the area just north of the Dunker Church.  At the base of the arrow, the name "JACKSON" is written in large red uppercase font.   Opposite the red arrows, two parallel blue arrows run down from the upper half of the map and are pointed south toward the same area around the Dunker Church as the red arrows. The name "Hooker" is written next to the left arrow, and "Mansfield" is written by the right, and both are in large blue uppercase font. A third and longer blue arrow comes in from the east edge of the map, and points directly at the tip of Jackson's short red arrow, just west of the Dunker Church. The name "SUMNER" is written in large blue uppercase letters, with the name "Sedgwick" written in smaller blue text below it.   In addition, short red bars are located in various positions on the battlefield: three small red bars are along Antietam creek on the southern end of the battlefield, three are on the east side of the town of Sharpsburg, four more are up in the center of the battlefield in the shape of a question mark southeast of the Dunker Church, and one short red bar is on the north end of the battlefield. 

CAPTION: Cornfield and West Woods 

CREDIT: Library of Congress

MAP 2 of 3: Sunken Road (Bloody Lane)

DESCRIBING: A small square map

DESCRIPTION:  The color map in the center is an aerial view titled "Sunken Road (Bloody Lane)." The purpose is to show the movement and positions of Union and Confederate forces during the fighting at the Sunken Road (Bloody Lane).  Above the town of Sharpsburg, a red arrow enters the battlefield in a northeasterly direction. At the base of the arrow, the name "Anderson" is written in small red text. The point of the arrow ends in the center of the battlefield with two medium length red bars at its tip, and a thin black line and the words "Sunken Road" to its right front. The name "D. H. Hill" is written in small red text next to the red bars.   A long blue arrow runs from the northeast, crosses Antietam Creek toward the southwest, and splits into two arrows. A long blue arrow runs from the northeast, crosses Antietam Creek toward the southwest, and splits into two arrows. The two arrows run parallel, curving downward, and ending at the two red bars and the Sunken Road. Next to the southernmost of the two blue arrows, in small blue text is the name "Richardson," while "French" is the name next to the northern arrow. At the base of the blue arrow, before it splits, is the name "SUMNER" in large blue uppercase text. In addition, short red bars are located in various positions on the map. Three are located on the southern end of the battlefield near Antietam Creek, two are on the southeast corner of the town of Sharpsburg, and three are located on the north central area of the battlefield, north of Sharpsburg.

CAPTION: Sunken Road (Bloody Lane)

CREDIT: Library of Congress

MAP 3 of 3: Lower Bridge (Burnside Bridge)

DESCRIBING: A small square map

DESCRIPTION:  The color map on the right is an aerial view titled "Lower Bridge (Burnside Bridge)." The purpose is to show the movement and positions of Union and Confederate forces during the fighting at the Lower Bridge (Burnside Bridge).  On the lower battlefield, south of Sharpsburg, a red arrow enters the battlefield from the southwest, stopping between Sharpsburg to the north, and the lower bridge to the south.At the base of the arrow's stem, the name A.P. Hill is written in red text.Short red bars are lined along the west side of the battlefield, for most of its length, in a large sideways V shape with the point toward the east. Opposite, on the west side of the lower bridge, three short blue arrows run northwest, and converge with the red arrow, north of the lower bridge. Another blue arrow, east of Antietam Creek, with the name "BURNSIDE" in large blue uppercase text, crosses the creek, makes a sweeping clockwise turn, and points north toward the area where the other red and blue arrows are converging, south of Sharpsburg. Farther north, a blue arrow labeled "Porter" runs in from the east, following the road toward Sharpsburg and pointing at the tip of the V formed by the red bars. To the north of Porter's arrow are three short blue bars opposite the red bars.

CAPTION: Lower Bridge (Burnside Bridge)

CREDIT: Library of Congress

↑ back to top

MAP AND TEXT: Antietam National Battlefield

IMAGE 1 of 1

DESCRIBING: A large map 

DESCRIPTION: A colored map covers the entire right side of the lower 2/3 of the page, with some additional features flowing over into the tour route text on the left side.  This way finding map guides visitors through the battlefield in numeric order, following the flow of battle as it happened. The map legend is on the right, shows north at the top of the map, and prohibits relic hunting.  The irregularly shaped battlefield area, designated by light green, runs mostly north to south for a length of about 4 miles. The width is irregular, about 1 mile wide in the north, widens to nearly 2 miles wide in the center, and narrows again in the southern end. Two prominent roads, marked in red provide access to the battlefield. Highway 65, a north south road, also labeled as Sharpsburg Pike, provides access to the battlefield from Interstate 70, and enters the map at the upper left.  Highway 65 runs along the western edge of the battlefield, and continues to the town of Sharpsburg, on the southwest side of the battlefield, where it forms a T intersection with northeast to southwest Highway 34, also labeled as Boonsboro Pike.   The Visitor Center, highlighted by a dark green rectangle on the west side of the central battlefield, and one mile north of Sharpsburg, is accessed from Highway 65. The Visitor Center is the only location on the map with a restroom symbol. The battlefield driving tour marked by a blue line, starts in front of the Visitor Center, heads north to stop 1 at Dunker Church, and then follows an overall clockwise route around the battlefield, driving through Sharpsburg, and ending at Antietam National Cemetery, on the east side of town. Tour stops are indicated by blue circles with white numbers in them, that correspond to numbered text information on the left side of the page. Arrows on the route indicate some parts are one way traffic and other parts are two way traffic.  Eight hiking trails, marked by red dashed lines are found at each of the three main battle sites, as well as throughout other areas of the battlefield.  The major battle sites are written in bold blue text; the Cornfield and West Woods on the northern end, Sunken Road (Bloody Lane) in the center, and Lower Bridge(Burnside Bridge) on the southern end.   The headquarters for both forces are highlighted in green print; Lee's Confederate headquarters is located southwest of the battlefield along Highway 34 on the west side of Sharpsburg, and McLellan's Union headquarters is located east of the battlefield, at the Pry House, now a medical museum, along Highway 34, three miles northeast of Sharpsburg. East of the battlefield Antietam Creek winds its way to the southwest from the northeast corner of the map, becomes the eastern border of the battlefield for a couple miles, and leaves the bottom of the map at the southeast end. About three miles Southwest of Sharpsburg and the battlefield, and flowing into the left side of the page, the Potomac River comes in from the north, crosses under Highway 34, makes a sweeping turn to the east, and angles toward the bottom center of the page.  Eleven prominent family farm houses are listed throughout the map in green text and a small green square, although they are closed to the public. On the north end of the battlefield, are the Miller farmhouse and the J. Poffenberger farmhouse.  West of the visitor center and across Highway 65 is the A. Poffenberger farmhouse.  East of the Visitor Center are the Mumma and Roulette farmhouses. South of the Visitor Center, close to Sharpsburg is the Piper farmhouse. Further south on the map near tour stop 10 are the Sherrick and Otto farmhouses.  A mile east of Sharpsburg along Highway 34 is the Newcomer farmhouse which sits against the Antietam creek. Directly north of the Newcomer farmhouse and due east of the Sunken Road (Bloody Lane) is the Parks farmhouse. Across Antietam creek along Highway 34 east of Sharpsburg, on the far right of the map is the Pry House Medical Museum and McClellan’s headquarter. Several monuments and other sites, like the Maryland Monument near the Visitor Center, the Observation Tower near the Sunken Road, and the Georgian Overlook near Burnside bridge are annotated in black text.


RELATED TEXT:  1- Dunker Church: Built in 1852, this modest house of worship for pacifist German Baptist Brethren became a focal point for Union attacks the morning of the battle. 

2- North Woods: Union Gen. Joseph Hooker’s men spent the night before the battle on the Poffenberger farm. At first light the Union attack advanced south from here toward Jackson’s lines. “The stars were still shining when [Hooker’s] skirmishers became engaged,” a soldier would later recall. 

3- East Woods: A small engagement took place in this area the night before the battle. The fighting also opened here early on September 17 as Union and Confederate soldiers exchanged deadly musket volleys, vying to control these woods. 

4- Cornfield: This 24-acre cornfield saw some of U.S. history’s most horrific fighting. For nearly three hours Hooker and Mansfield’s Union forces battled Jackson’s Confederates. Many regiments on both sides were cut to pieces. Hays’ Louisiana Brigade suffered over 60-percent casualties in 30 minutes. 

5-  West Woods: Around 9:30 am Gen. Edwin Sumner’s Union soldiers advanced into the West Woods. The combined firepower of Confederate artillery and attacking infantry drove them back. In 20 minutes over 2,200 Union soldiers were killed or wounded. 

6- Mumma Farm and Cemetery: The only deliberate destruction of property during the battle was the burning of this farm. Confederate soldiers were ordered to burn these structures to prevent their use by Union sharpshooters. Fortunately, Samuel Mumma and his family had fled to safety before the battle. The Mumma family rebuilt the home in 1863.

7- Union Advance: During mid-morning nearly 10,000 Union soldiers moved across the Mumma and Roulette farms toward the Confederate center at Sunken Road. Two Union soldiers were awarded Medals of Honor for bravery in these attacks. 

8- Sunken Road (Bloody Lane): This farm lane served as a breastwork for the Confederate center. For about three hours 2,200 Confederates, later reinforced by additional troops, held off the attacks of a combined Union force numbering nearly 10,000. Finally, just after noon, this thin gray line collapsed and fell back several hundred yards to the Piper Farm. The Union attackers had suffered too many casualties to pursue their advantage. Seeing the dead in the road an observer wrote, “They were lying in rows like the ties of a railroad, in heaps like cordwood mingled with the splintered and shattered fence rails. Words are inadequate to portray the scene.”

9- Lower Bridge (Burnside Bridge): About 500 Confederate soldiers held the area overlooking the Lower Bridge for three hours. Burnside’s command finally captured the bridge and crossed Antietam Creek, which forced the Confederates back toward Sharpsburg. 

10- Final Attack: After taking the Lower Bridge, Burnside moved across these fields from east to west, pushing back the Confederate right flank. Just as it appeared that Lee’s line was breaking, Confederate Gen. A.P. Hill’s Light Division arrived from Harpers Ferry to drive Burnside back to Antietam Creek. 

11- Antietam National Cemetery: This hill was occupied by Confederate artillery— neither this nor the town cemetery across the road were here in 1862. At first the dead were buried where they fell on the battlefield. Later they were reinterred here, along with Union soldiers who died in combat or in hospitals throughout the region. A total of 4,776 Union soldiers rest here along with dead from four other wars. Separate even in death, Confederate soldiers were buried in Hagerstown and Frederick, Md. and Shepherdstown, Va., now West Virginia.

↑ back to top

TEXT: Visiting Antietam Battlefield

On the lower right corner of the page, information about visiting Antietam Battlefield is provided. The first paragraph briefly describes location and access information, Visitor Center open and closed days, and information about exhibits and accessibility.    The second paragraph provides information about historical markers other than at the battlefield, but related to the Maryland Campaign. The third paragraph discusses safety and regulations at the battlefield, including traffic, bike riding, hazardous organisms, and things to avoid.

RELATED TEXT:  Antietam Battlefield lies north and east of Sharpsburg, Md., along Md. 34 and 65. The visitor center, north of Sharpsburg on Md. 65, is open daily except Thanksgiving, December 25, and January 1. Before starting your tour, stop at the visitor center to see the exhibits and AV programs that introduce the battle and the Maryland Campaign. Visitor center facilities and most tour route exhibits are wheelchair-accessible. The park closes 20 minutes after sunset. 

There are interpretive markers at Turners, Fox, and Crampton gaps on South Mountain and at the ford near Shepherdstown, W. Va., where much of Lee’s army recrossed the Potomac River.   

Safety and Regulations: While touring the park stay alert to traffic. Bicyclists should use caution descending hills. Please use trails to minimize contact with stinging nettles, ticks, and snakes. Do not climb on cannon, monuments, fences, or trees. Relic hunting is prohibited.

↑ back to top

OVERVIEW: Accessibility

Antietam Battlefield staff are committed to making the battlefield accessible to individuals with mobility, hearing, or vision impairments.

PARKING: Handicap Parking is wheelchair accessible.  Note- the sidewalk leading up to the visitor center inclines 5° for 50 feet. 

VISITOR CENTER ACCESSIBILITY:  The bookstore is on the main level. Purchase tours on CD, hire a private guide to get a detailed tour, and buy literature, souvenirs, and music for sale.  The Visitor Center museum is accessible using steps or elevator, and various text fonts are on the displays.  The theatre presents a closed captioned 27 minute orientation film with designated seating, unrestricted seats, and audio description available. The observation room is accessible by steps from the lobby or via ramp from the outside sidewalk. The restrooms have touch free devices, wheel-chair accessible stalls, and are accessible on the main level.

DRIVING TOUR ROUTE: Tour roads are accessible. Use your own vehicle for the 8½ mile tour and 11 stops. At stop 9, Lower Bridge (Burnside Bridge), designated wheelchair accessible parking is at base of the hill, allowing level access to the bridge.  Parking at the top of the hill, a short sidewalk and steps lead down to the bridge. Audio tour and private guides are available, call (301) 432-4329.


Dunker Church- not accessible but viewable from doorway.  

Pry House Field Hospital Museum- Accessible, use Authorized Vehicle Parking area up the hill. Open seasonally, call (301) 695-1864 for more information.  

Newcomer House, Heart of the Civil War Heritage Area visitor center- Accessible, open seasonally, call (301) 432-6402 for more information.


Ranger led Interpretive Programs and talks are stationary or short walks. Sign Interpreters are provided with a 72 hour advance notice

Entrance Fee-  No admission fee for individuals who qualify or possess the National Access Passport, visit our website at for more information.

Visitor feedback on their tour of Antietam is the best way we can improve our accessibility services. Your comments and suggestions are welcome.

↑ back to top

OVERVIEW: More Information


Antietam National Battlefield

P. O. Box 158, Sharpsburg, MD 21782

(301) 432-5124

RELATED TEXT: Antietam National Battlefield is one of over 390 parks in the National Park System. To learn more about parks and National Park Service programs in America’s communities, visit

↑ back to top

By using this site, you agree to follow our Terms, Conditions, License, Privacy Policy, and Research Protocols.