Manassas National Battlefield Park

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OVERVIEW: About this audio-described brochure

Welcome to the audio described version of the official print brochure, for Manassas National Battlefield Park. Through text and audio descriptions of photos, illustrations, and a map, this version interprets the two-sided color brochure that Manassas visitors receive. It introduces park visitors to key persons and places involved in the Manassas battles, and provides a brief history of the park and events, through exhibits, displays, and walking and driving tours. We have divided the brochure into 12 sections as a way to improve the listening experience.  You are listening to section 1, an introduction to the brochure. Section 2 is a brief introduction to the park. Sections 3 - 6, lasting about 33 minutes, describe the front of the brochure and cover key actions of each battle. Sections 7 - 12, lasting about 28 minutes, detail the park layout, trails, walking and driving tours, and accessibility information.

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Manassas National Battlefield Park

Manassas National Battlefield Park, located in northern Virginia, is part of the National Park Service, within the Department of the Interior. The 5,000+ acre park is 26 miles west-southwest of Washington D.C., and 5 miles north of downtown Manassas, Virginia. Established in 1940, the park preserves the hallowed ground where two significant Civil War battles occurred, the first in July, 1861, and the second, a year later, in August, 1862.  Every year, hundreds of thousands of visitors tour the 19th century agricultural fields, explore the forest landscapes, or commune with nature, as they gain a better understanding of the experiences of the tens of thousands of American Civil War soldiers who fought here, and the over four thousand soldiers killed or mortally wounded during the course of both battles. For those wishing to learn more about the park and its resources, the Henry Hill Visitor Center, open daily, includes hands-on reproduction items of the Civil War period, other tactile exhibits, and experiences. To find out more information about resources available, or about contacting the park directly, visit the "Accessibility" and "More Information" sections at the end of this audio-described brochure.

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OVERVIEW: Front side of brochure

 The front side of the brochure starts with a color photo of a print, depicting a Civil War battle scene, spanning the width and the top third of the page. Beneath the image, the lower two thirds of the page is split in half, left and right. The left half provides text and images covering the First Battle of Manassas; (also known as First Bull Run). It provides three images of military leaders from both armies, and one of a bridge; all important in the battle. The text also provides a summary of actions by both armies during the first battle. The right half provides text and images covering the Second Battle of Manassas - (also known as Second Bull Run). It provides three images of military leaders from both sides, and one of a house; all significant to the battle. The text also provides a summary of actions by both armies during the second battle.

More detailed text and photo descriptions are provided in their own sections of this audio brochure.

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Large painting on the top third of the Front side of the brochure

IMAGE 1 of 1

DESCRIBE: Color Photograph

DESCRIPTION:  The image is a color photograph of a Civil War print, an action scene, covering the entire width of the top third of the page.  The view is as if the viewer is in the foreground of the image, and part of a group of soldiers in action. The viewer is looking across and from the right rear, behind the rest of the group, of nine white male soldiers whose attention is mostly focused to their front. All but one is in gray uniform. In front of the group, three additional white male soldiers on horseback, are riding from left to right in a narrow field of tan colored grass. Beyond the three riders, a wooden railed zigzag fence, separates the tan field from a cornfield beyond it. Most soldiers in the group have bedrolls strapped on their backs, the ends of several rifle barrels are visible, and one soldier facing away from the viewer is carrying a broken drum under his left arm. Two soldiers on the right side of the group, are much lower then the rest, as if bent down, and are cut off by the bottom of the image.  A mustached soldier in gray uniform stands confidently in front of the group. He wears three upside down black chevrons on his right sleeve, and is holding a brown flagpole in his hands. The flagpole is tilted slightly back and over his left shoulder, and the waving flag gives a view of a wide, red stripe at the bottom, and a sliver of a white stripe above it, before disappearing at the top of the image. The soldier is looking back, over his right shoulder, toward the soldiers behind him, with his gray hat tilted back on his head, and his mouth open, as if yelling. In the middle of the men, a soldier in blue uniform, is facing the opposite direction of the rest of the group, and brandishing an un sheathed saber behind him in his outstretched right arm.  He has a white cloth covering his hat and the back of his neck, and has a black mustache and beard.  His left hand is gripping the sheath strapped to his left side, and his mouth is open as if yelling at the soldier in front of him. In the middle of the image, are the three riders on horseback in the tan field. Two riders are together in the center, and the third rider is farther in front of the other two, and on the right side of the image. The two riders on the left are close together and overlapping. The overlapping rider is looking to his left toward the cornfield. He is wearing a gray uniform, gray cowboy style hat with a large black feather, and is holding a pistol down by his right side in his tan gloved hand. His saddled brown horse is wide-eyed, up on its hind legs with front feet in the air, as if it might be startled. The mustached horse rider to his left rear, is in a navy blue hat and coat, lighter blue pants, with a thin gold colored stripe down the side of the leg, and wearing long tan gloves. Separate and in front of those two horsemen, the third rider is in navy blue uniform with gold trim visible on his right shoulder. He is looking to his right, toward the soldiers, and holding his hat high above his head in his left hand. The horses reins are pulled tight in his right hand. He has a large black mustache, thin goatee and an open mouth. His dark brown horse is also wide-eyed, with open mouth, as if frightened. In the background, in or behind the cornfield, is a gray smoky scene, with three distant flags partially visible through the smoke above the cornfield. The two to the left are United States flags, and the third flag, on the right, has two wide red horizontal stripes on either side of a wide white stripe. In the upper right corner of the flag is a blue square field, with a single white star in the center. Underneath the right side of the image is a round copyright mark, and written next to it: "Don Troiani. Courtesy of Historical Art Prints, Southbury, Connecticut."

Related Text:  At the bottom of the brochure page, the citation reads: Cover: Confederate Brig. Gen. Barnard Bee, still wearing his blue U.S. Army frock coat, sends the 4th Alabama Regiment forward in an unsuccessful attempt to halt the Union advance at Matthews Hill, July 21, 1861. Detail from “Up Alabamians!” The 4th Alabama at First Bull Run by Don Troiani.


      
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Images on the Front side of the brochure associated with the First Manassas (First Bull Run) text narrative

DESCRIPTION: The sepia-toned narrative on the left side of the page is titled: "First Manassas (First Bull Run)." The text is split into two sections, with 1/4 at the top and 3/4 at the bottom. Sandwiched between the upper and lower narratives, a row of four small black and white rectangular photos, with captions, are placed side by side. The three on the left are of soldiers, and the fourth, on the right, is an outdoor scene of a bridge. The upper and shorter section of text is a brief summary of how the day began, with great expectations on both sides, and concludes with the reality of the war. The lower and longer narrative summarizes the Union and Confederate actions during the first battle.

RELATED TEXT:  On a warm July day in 1861, two armies of a divided nation clashed for the first time on the fields overlooking Bull Run. Their ranks were filled with enthusiastic young volunteers in colorful new uniforms, gathered to- gether from every part of the country. Confident that their foes would run at the first shot, the raw recruits were thankful that they would not miss the only battle of what surely would be a short war. But any thought of colorful pageantry was suddenly lost in the smoke, din, dirt, and death of battle. Soldiers on both sides were stunned by the violence and destruction they encountered. At day’s end nearly 900 young men lay lifeless on the fields of Matthews Hill, Henry Hill, and Chinn Ridge. Ten hours of heavy fighting swept away any notion the war’s outcome would be decided quickly.


IMAGE 1 of 4

DESCRIBE: A small black and white photograph.

DESCRIPTION: This is a small, rectangular black and white historical photograph of General Irvin McDowell, a middle-aged white male in military dress uniform.  Placed vertically, it is a posed studio photograph of his head and upper chest on a dark, flat background.  McDowell is positioned facing and looking away from the camera, at a 45 degree angle to his right, with his left side nearest the viewer. He has moderately short, dark, neatly combed hair, parted on his left side. His fleshy, white complexion is smooth, except for bags under his eyes.  McDowell has a full dark mustache that blends into a full goatee, graying around the edges. His mouth disappears into his facial hair, and is turned down slightly at the corners.  His expression is stern, staring straight ahead, as if lost in thought. On the chest of his dark military uniform coat, are nine large light-colored buttons, placed in two vertical columns, grouped in sets of three. There are six buttons in the near column, and three visible in the far column. McDowell has a rectangular insignia on his left shoulder, slightly arched, fitting the natural curve of his shoulder. The insignia has a thick light colored border, squared corners, and a similarly shaded star in the center of a dark background.


CAPTION: Gen. Irvin McDowell, Federal commander at the First Battle of Manassas.

CREDIT: Library of Congress


IMAGE 2 of 4

DESCRIBE: A small black and white photograph

DESCRIPTION: This is a small, rectangular, black and white historical photograph of Gen. P.G.T Beauregard, a white male, probably in his forties, and dressed in military uniform. Set vertically, it is a posed studio photograph of his head and upper chest on a flat dark background. Beauregard's torso is turned slightly to his left, with his head turned back to his right, and looking directly at the camera. He has a refined look, with dark, shiny combed back hair, dark wide eyebrows, and a high forehead that squares his narrow face. Beauregard has defined cheekbones, a dark mustache that covers the corners of his mouth, and a wisp of a dark goatee in the center of his chin. He has a confident and serious, thin lipped expression.  Beauregard wears a dark military uniform coat, with a light colored short vertical collar. The coat has seven large light colored buttons, placed in two vertical columns, grouped in sets of three.  Three buttons are on the left side, and four are visible on the right. Part of an additional button is cut off by the bottom of the photograph.


CAPTION: Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard, commander of the main Confederate army at Manassas.

CREDIT: National Park Service

IMAGE 3 of 4

DESCRIBE: A small black and white photograph

DESCRIPTION:  This is a small, rectangular, black and white historical photograph of General Joseph E. Johnston, a white middle-aged male, of slender build, and dressed in military uniform. Set vertically, it is a posed studio photograph of his head and upper chest on a light white background. Facing the picture, Johnston is turned, facing, and looking slightly to the left of the camera.  He has a very high, receding hairline, with only a glimmer of hair visible at the top of his head. The medium dark hair thickens on the sides, is a little scruffy looking, and forms thin, graying sideburns, that extend down to his jawline. Johnston has a full, graying mustache, and a neatly trimmed, and also graying goatee. His slender face has a slightly weathered complexion, a trace of a furrowed brow, and a concerned look, with the corners of his closed mouth turned down slightly.  Johnston wears a neatly fit, light-colored, probably gray, military dress uniform coat with a short white vertical collar, that forms a distinct "V" at the front.  Three stars, the same shade as his coat, are visible on the left side of his collar, with a partial view of the same on his right collar. The center star is larger than the other two.  His coat has six medium-sized light shaded buttons, with a rounded look.  They are placed in two vertical columns, symmetrical from side to side, as the vertical spacing increases, moving downward.


CAPTION: Gen. Joseph E. Johnston. His Confederate troops helped to turn the tide of battle.

CREDIT: National Archives

IMAGE 4 of 4

DESCRIBE: A small black and white photograph

DESCRIPTION: This horizontally placed, black and white, historical photograph of an outdoor scene is the width of the other three photographs combined. Facing the scene, the foreground is a close view at an angled image, from the left, of part of a stone bridge, with the middle section missing, and the short side walls partially crumbled onto the inner bridge surface. The texture and design of the bridge structure is very clear, with the individual shaped stones, mostly rectangular stacked in rows, with occasional odd shaped stones in the mix.  Short grass is visible on the surface of the right portion, and the left portion appears to be a smooth surface, blending into grass as it approaches the gap between the two sides. In the extreme foreground, water is visible that approaches and passes through the gap in the bridge but isn't visible past that point.  After crossing the bridge coming in from behind the viewers left, the road turns hard left and then continues straight ahead toward higher terrain in the background. On the way, the dirt road makes a small dip, continues up over a rise, then disappears over the top, with another, taller hill in the near distance.  The road separates two sides of a field between the bridge and the higher ground.  The field and road are scattered with broken trees, short brush, and debris, with the exception of one leafless white tree standing alone in the middle of the photograph, to the left of the road.  Beyond that tree, a sporadic few remain standing along the roadway and on hilly horizon. In the distance, partly visible in the far right corner of the photograph, on top of the hill is a light-colored building.  On the bridge, a person in profile view, facing the to right of the photograph in dark clothes, appears to be sitting on the far wall stone work, of the left half of the bridge, looking straight ahead, and slightly downward.


CAPTION: The Stone Bridge, where the opening shots of First Manassas were fired


CREDIT: National Archives


DESCRIPTION: Below the photos, the sepia-toned narrative continues with nine brief paragraphs, summarizing the Union and Confederate actions during the Battle of First Manassas (First Bull Run). 

RELATED TEXT:  Cheers rang through the streets of Washington on July 16, 1861, as Gen. Irvin McDowell’s army, 35,000 strong, marched out to begin the long-awaited campaign to capture Richmond and end the war. It was an army of green recruits, few of whom had the faintest idea of the magnitude of the task facing them. But their swaggering gait showed that none doubted the outcome. As excitement spread, many citizens and congressmen with wine and picnic baskets followed the army into the field to watch what all expected would be a colorful show. 

These troops were 90-day volunteers summoned by President Abraham Lincoln after the startling news of Fort Sumter burst over the nation in April 1861. Called from shops and farms, they had little knowledge of what war would mean. The first day's march covered only five miles, as many straggled to pick blackberries or fill canteens.

McDowell’s lumbering columns were headed for the vital railroad junction at Manassas. Here the Orange and Alexandria Railroad met the Manassas Gap Railroad, which led west to the Shenandoah Valley. If McDowell could seize this junction, he would stand astride the best overland approach to the Confederate capital.

On July 18 McDowell’s army reached Centreville. Five miles ahead a small meandering stream named Bull Run crossed the route of the Union advance, and there guarding the fords from Union Mills to the Stone Bridge waited 22,000 Southern troops under the command of Gen. Pierre G.T. Beauregard. McDowell first attempted to move toward the Confederate right flank, but his troops were checked at Blackburn’s Ford. He then spent the next two days scouting the Southern left flank. In the meantime Beauregard asked the Confederate government at Richmond for help. Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, stationed in the Shenandoah Valley with 10,000 Confederate troops, was ordered to support Beauregard if possible. Johnston gave an opposing Union force the slip and, employing the Manassas Gap Railroad, started his brigades toward Manassas Junction. Most of Johnston’s troops arrived at the junction on July 20 and 21, some marching from the trains directly into battle.

On the morning of July 21, McDowell sent his attack columns in a long march north toward Sudley Springs Ford. This route took the Federals around the Confederate left. To distract the Southerners, McDowell ordered a diversionary attack where the Warrenton Turnpike crossed Bull Run at the Stone Bridge. At 5:30 am the deep-throated roar of a 30-pounder Parrott rifle shattered the morning calm, and signaled the start of battle.

McDowell’s new plan depended on speed and surprise, both difficult with inexperienced troops. Valuable time was lost as the men stumbled through the darkness along narrow roads. Confederate Col. Nathan Evans, commanding at the Stone Bridge, soon realized that the attack on his front was only a diversion. Leaving a small force to hold the bridge, Evans rushed the remainder of his command to Matthews Hill in time to check McDowell’s lead unit. But Evans’ force was too small to hold back the Federals for long.

Soon brigades under Barnard Bee and Francis Bartow marched to Evans’ assistance. But even with these reinforcements, the thin gray line collapsed and Southerners fled in disorder toward Henry Hill. Attempting to rally his men, Bee used Gen. Thomas J. Jackson’s newly arrived brigade as an anchor. Pointing to Jackson, Bee shouted, “There stands Jackson like a stone wall! Rally behind the Virginians!” Generals Johnston and Beauregard then arrived on Henry Hill, where they assisted in rallying shattered brigades and redeploying fresh units that were marching to the point of danger.

About noon, the Federals stopped their advance to reorganize for a new attack. The lull lasted for about an hour, giving the Confederates enough time to reform their lines. Then the fighting resumed, each side trying to force the other off Henry Hill. The battle continued until just after 4 pm, when fresh Southern units crashed into the Union right flank on Chinn Ridge, causing McDowell’s tired and discouraged soldiers to withdraw.

At first the withdrawal was orderly. Screened by the regulars, the three-month volunteers retired across Bull Run, where they found the road to Washington jammed with the carriages of congressmen and others who had driven out to Centreville to watch the fight. Panic now seized many of the soldiers and the retreat became a rout. The Confederates, though bolstered by the arrival of President Jefferson Davis on the field just as the battle was ending, were to disorganized to follow up their success. Daybreak on July 22 found the defeated Union army back behind the bristling defenses of Washington.

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Images on the Front side of the brochure associated with the Second Manassas (Second Bull Run) text narrative

DESCRIPTION: The sepia-toned narrative on the right of the page is titled: "Second Manassas, (Second Bull Run)." The narrative is split, with 1/4 at the top and 3/4 at the bottom. Sandwiched between the upper and lower narratives, a row of four small black and white rectangular photos, with captions, are placed side by side.The three on the left are of soldiers, and the fourth, on the right, is an outdoor scene of a house. The upper, and shorter section of text summarizes how seasoned soldiers, on both sides, approached the impact of the second battle. The lower and longer narrative summarizes the Union and Confederate actions during the battle.

RELATED TEXT: In August 1862, Union and Confederate armies converged for a second time on the plains of Manassas. The naive enthusiasm that preceded the earlier encounter was gone. War was not the holiday outing or grand adventure envisioned by the young recruits of 1861. The contending forces, now made up of seasoned veterans, knew well the realities of war. The Battle of Second Manassas, covering three days, produced far greater carnage—3,300 killed—and brought the Confederacy to the height of its power. Still the battle did not weaken Northern resolve. The war’s final outcome was yet unknown, and it would be left to other battles to decide whether the sacrifice at Manassas was part of the high price of Southern independence, or the cost of one country again united under the national standard.

IMAGE 1 of 4

DESCRIBE:  A small black and white photograph

DESCRIPTION: This is a small, rectangular black and white historical photograph of General Thomas J. Jackson , a middle aged white male of slender build, in military dress uniform. Placed vertically, it is a 3/4 left profile view of his head and upper chest, taken in a studio, in front of a flat white background. Jackson has dark hair, starting with a widows peak on his high forehead, merging into thick sideburns and a full beard and mustache. His long face is accentuated by his beard, weathered complexion, defined cheekbones, dark eyes and furrowed brow. He has a serious tone with straight closed lips. Jackson wears a faded light colored uniform coat, with faded embroidery on the short, white vertical collar. His coat has six medium-sized light shaded buttons. They are placed in two vertical columns, symmetrical from side to side, as the vertical spacing increases, moving downward.

CAPTION: Gen. Thomas J. Jackson, whose steadfastness influenced the outcome of both battles.

Credit: National Archives

IMAGE 2 of 4

DESCRIBE: A small black and white photograph

DESCRIPTION: This is a small, rectangular black and white historical photograph of General Robert E. Lee , a middle-aged, white male, in military dress uniform. Lee is in a posed vertical portrait photo of his upper chest and head, positioned facing and looking slightly to his right, with his left side nearest the viewer. He has a high forehead, light thinning hair parted on his left, and combed over to the right, with a few hairs sticking out somewhat over his ears. Lee has a full, trimmed, white beard and mustache. He has a proud and determined face, although his closed mouth turns down slightly at the corners. Lee has a smooth complexion, with slight crows feet, and a glimmer in both eyes. Lee neatly wears a medium-dark, military coat with a slightly open lapel, white collared shirt and thin bow tie. There is a glimpse of another dark clothing layer underneath. Two unused buttons are visible beneath his left lapel, and three stars are aligned vertically on his left collar.

CAPTION: Gen. Robert E. Lee. His bold strategy made Second Manassas a Confederate victory.

CREDIT: Library of Congress

IMAGE 3 of 4

DESCRIBE: A small black and white photograph

DESCRIPTION: Placed vertically on the brochure, this is a small, rectangular, head and upper chest historical portrait photograph of General John Pope.  Pictured with a dark background, Pope, a white male, is in military dress uniform. He is facing and looking slightly off to his right, with his left side nearest the viewer. Pope has a full head of dark hair that is longer than normal military expectation, and nearly covering his left ear.  His smooth complexion and confident stare, give him a look of a younger age than suggested by his dark eyebrows, full dark beard and mustache. The collar of a white shirt sits above his coat collar, and his dark uniform coat is open slightly, revealing another glimpse of the white shirt.  A couple of large, unused buttons are visible under his left lapel, and there is a hint of an insignia, on his left shoulder, just visible inside the right edge of the photograph. 

CAPTION: Gen. John Pope, whose overconfidence resulted in Union defeat.

CREDIT: Library of Congress

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DESCRIBE: A small black and white photograph

DESCRIPTION: This horizontally placed, black and white, historical photograph of an outdoor scene is the width of the other three photographs combined. Facing the scene, a large two story stone house commands most of the photograph. The view of the house is from the left front from several meters away, and a portion of the front and side yards are visible.  The entire front of the house is bathed in sunlight, while the left side is darkened by shadow. The steeply pitched roof is shingled with two stone chimneys, each one centered above the roof peak at each end.  Four windows on the upper floor are symmetrically placed with the three windows and door below them. Most of the windows have multiple panes, although the lower left window is boarded, and the window directly above has several broken panes. The doorway is elevated and has steps leading up to it. On either side of the steps is a dark shadowed square, possibly ground level windows. The house is surrounded on the left, front and right by three thin-leaved trees. In the back left of the house a distant wooden fence is silhouetted against a cloudless sky.  In front of the house an open carriage with four spoked wheels is pulled by two horses, and a man sits in the driver's seat holding the reins.  To the left front of the house, four men stand apart in the shadows, while farther to the left, more in the foreground, a fifth man is illuminated by sunlight. He is facing toward the camera, and wears a light colored brimmed hat and knee-length, light colored coat, fastened at the top and wide open at the bottom. In the front yard, between the carriage and the group of men, is the well, comprised of a wooden platform with two support poles supporting the well handle. 

CAPTION: The Stone House, a landmark of both battles.

CREDIT: National Archives

The sepia-toned narrative continues to the bottom of the page with eight brief paragraphs, summarizing the Union and Confederate actions during the battle of Second Manassas (Second Bull Run).

RELATED TEXT: After the Union defeat at Manassas in July 1861, Gen. George B. McClellan took command of the Federal forces in and around Washington and organized them into a formidable fighting machine the Army of the Potomac. In March 1862, leaving a strong force to cover the capital, McClellan shifted his army by water to Fort Monroe on the tip of the York-James peninsula, only 100 miles southeast of Richmond. Early in April he advanced toward the Confederate capital.

Anticipating such a move, the Southerners abandoned the Manassas area and marched to meet the Federals. By the end of May, McClellan’s troops were within sight of Richmond. Here Gen. Joseph E. Johnston’s Confederate army assailed the Federals in the bloody but inconclusive Battle of Seven Pines. Johnston was wounded, and President Davis placed Gen. Robert E. Lee in command. Seizing the offensive, Lee sent his force (now called the Army of Northern Virginia) across the Chickahominy River and, in a series of savage battles, pushed McClellan back from the edge of Richmond to a position on the James River. 

At the same time, the scattered Federal forces in northern Virginia were organized into the Army of Virginia under the command of Gen. John Pope, who arrived with a reputation freshly won in the war’s western theater. Gambling that McClellan would cause no further trouble around Richmond, Lee sent Stonewall Jackson’s corps northward to “suppress” Pope. Jackson clashed indecisively with part of Pope’s troops at Cedar Mountain on August 9. Meanwhile, learning that the Army of the Potomac was withdrawing by water to join Pope, Lee marched with Gen. James Longstreet’s corps to bolster Jackson. 

On the Rapidan, Pope successfully blocked Lee’s attempts to gain a tactical advantage, and then withdrew his men north of the Rappahannock River. Lee knew that if he was to defeat Pope he would have to strike before McClellan’s army arrived in northern Virginia. On August 25 Lee boldly started Jackson’s corps on a march of over 50 miles, around the Union right flank to strike at Pope's rear. Two days later, Jackson’s veterans seized Pope’s supply depot at Manassas Junction. After a day of wild feasting, Jackson burned the Federal supplies and moved to a position in the woods at Groveton near the old Manassas battlefield.

Pope, stung by the attack on his supply base, abandoned the line of the Rappahannock and headed toward Manassas to “bag” Jackson. At the same time, Lee was moving northward with Longstreet’s corps to reunite his army. On the afternoon of August 28, to prevent the Federal commander’s efforts to concentrate at Centreville and bring Pope to battle, Jackson ordered his troops to attack a Union column as it marched past on the Warrenton Turnpike. This savage fight at Brawner s Farm lasted until dark.

Convinced that Jackson was isolated, Pope ordered his columns to converge on Groveton. He was sure that he could destroy Jackson before Lee and Longstreet could intervene. On the 29th Pope’s army found Jackson’s men posted along an unfinishe railroad grade, north of the turnpike. All afternoon, in a series of uncoordinated attacks, Pope hurled his men against the Confederate position. In several places the northerners momentarily breached Jackson’s line, but each time were forced back. During the afternoon, Longstreet’s troops arrived on the battlefield and, unknown to Pope, deployed on Jackson’s right, overlapping the exposed Union left. Lee urged Longstreet to attack, but “Old Pete” demurred. The time was just not right, he said.

The morning of August 30 passed quietly. Just before noon, erroneously concluding the Confederates were retreating, Pope ordered his army forward in “pursuit.” The pursuit, however, was short-lived. Pope found that Lee had gone nowhere. Amazingly, Pope ordered yet another attack against Jackson’s line. Fitz-John Porter’s corps, along with part of McDowell’s, struck Starke’s division at the unfinished railroad’s “Deep Cut.” The southerners held firm, and Porter's column was hurled back in a bloody repulse. 

Seeing the Union lines in disarray, Longstreet pushed his massive columns forward and staggered the Union left. Pope’s army was faced with annihilation. Only a heroic stand by northern troops, first on Chinn Ridge and then once again on Henry Hill, bought time for Pope’s hard-pressed Union forces. Finally, under cover of darkness the defeated Union army withdrew across Bull Run toward the defenses of Washington. Lee’s bold and brilliant Second Manassas campaign opened the way for the south’s first invasion of the north, and a bid for foreign intervention.

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OVERVIEW: Back side of brochure

The back side of the brochure contains information about touring the battlefield, either walking or driving, and starts with a thick black bar across the top of the page. On the left of the black bar, typed in large white print reads: "The Battlefields of Manassas."  Beneath the black bar, and stretching the width of the page, is a narrow section of sepia-toned text, offering a very brief over view of some terrain and structures associated with the Manassas Battlefields. Continuing below, the remainder of the page is split vertically into two sections of information, 1/3 on the left, and 2/3 on the right, separated from the narrow text above by thin black bars, while a color way-finding map covers the lower left quarter of the page.  The left 1/3, has two short columns of text and two color photos, sandwiched between the black bar above, and the way-finding map below.  Typed on the black bar in small white text, reads: "First Manassas Battlefield: A Walking Tour." The right 2/3 of the page has a narrow black bar over four columns of text and three captioned color photos, with the words "Second Manassas Battlefield: A Driving Tour" typed on the black bar, also in white lettering. Each paragraph in the driving tour text is marked by a red dot with a white number inside, corresponding to red dots marked on the map. The color way-finding map in the lower left quarter of the page, beneath the walking tour information, also overlaps into the first column of the driving tour information, shortening that first column. The map contains information about the park layout, and directions for both types of tours.

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Images on Back side of brochure

DESCRIPTION: Five modern color photographs of park landmarks are found on the back side of the brochure.  Two of them, a house and a statue, serve as text bookends for the Walking Tour text information on the left side of the page. The other three photographs, of two houses and a bridge, are interspersed within the text of the Driving Tour information, on the right side of the brochure.

IMAGE 1 of 5

DESCRIBE: A small color photograph

DESCRIPTION: This is a small, square, outdoor modern color photograph, with a ground level view, looking up across an open green field on a gray cloudy day, past a cannon in the left foreground, a wooden two story house in the center, a white shed behind the house, and a monument behind a wooden split rail fence in the right rear background. The cannon, in the foreground, has a green carriage with two spoked wheels, and a black barrel pointing to the viewers right. The view of the house is the left side and rear, at a distance.  A leafless tree, centered on and close to the back of the house and twice as tall as the house, partially blocks the view of several of the windows, and the red brick chimney on the far peak of the steeply angled, shingled roof. The horizontal boards on the exterior walls are faded gray and brown. The left side of the house has two large multi-paned windows, lined up over each other, one for each floor, and sitting left of center, seem unbalanced. A small window is centered in the gable, beneath the peak of the roof. The left pillar and left side of the black front porch roof, protrude from the left of the house. Behind the house, a small black information plaque is silhouetted against the partial right side view of the white shed with a black pitched roof. The monument in the background behind the split rail fence, is a large and tall reddish brown cone shape, pointed up, with several conical artillery shells positioned on the base below. The monument is comprised of reddish brown native sandstone, laid horizontally with long, tan mortar lines, and short vertical mortar lines in between.

CAPTION: Henry House

CREDIT:  NPS / BRAD WALDRON

RELATED TEXT:  The critical fighting at First Manassas (Bull Run) centered on Henry Hill. Today a one-mile self-guiding loop trail with interpretive signs tells the story of the battle. The trail begins behind the visitor center, leads past Ricketts’ Battery of Union artillery, and continues to the rebuilt Henry House. In the yard of the 1870 house is the grave of Judith Carter Henry, who was mortally wounded by artillery fire and the only civilian killed during the first battle.  Behind the house is an 1865 monument erected by Union soldiers in “Memory of the Patriots who fell at Bull Run.”

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DESCRIBE: A small color photograph

DESCRIPTION: This is a small, square, outdoor modern color photograph, in profile view of a large dark gray monument of a Civil War soldier, Stonewall Jackson, on horseback, set on on a large gray rectangular pedestal, facing to the viewers left. The monument is surrounded by slate pavers and stands in an open green field, with a low green tree line in the distance, marking the edge of a bright blue sky with high wispy clouds. Jackson sits proudly and tall in the saddle, left arm akimbo and on his left hip. His long, sheathed saber hangs down at his left side, and his waist length uniform cape waves in the breeze behind him. He looks straight ahead, to the viewers left, his billed hat sitting squarely on his head, shadowing his bearded face. Jackson's horse stands just as proudly beneath him, squarely on all fours, with very defined muscles all over its body. His neck is arched majestically, with ears perked and forward. Centered on the upper portion of the monument, engraved in large uppercase lettering reads: "THERE STANDS JACKSON LIKE A STONE WALL."

CAPTION: Stonewall Jackson Monument

CREDIT:  CHRIS HEISEY

RELATED TEXT:  From the Henry House the trail continues north to the location of Imboden’s Confederate artillery overlooking Matthews Hill—occupied during the morning phase of the battle—and then across the fields to the sit of the Robinson House, where Col. Wade Hampton led his South Carolina troops into the battle. The trail then loops back along the Southern line, where Gen. Thomas J. Jackson received his famous nickname “Stonewall” from Gen. Barnard Bee, to the site where Confederate infantry captured artillery from Capt. Charles Griffin s Union battery—a turning point of the battle. The final stop faces Chinn Ridge where, in lat afternoon, a Confederate attack crushed Gen. Irvin McDowell’s right flank and began the rout of the entire Union army.


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DESCRIBE: A small color photograph

DESCRIPTION:  A small, square, modern color photograph of a brown two-story stone house set in a green field and clear blue sky. The view is from just above ground level, looking up at the left front of the house from several meters away. In the center of the photo the the houses's stone work is clear, with a variety of sizes and colors of stone from reddish brown to tan or light gray.  The left face has two small windows near the eves, on either side of the chimney, rising several feet above the roofline. At ground level on the left side is a small stone addition, that looks like a little building, connected like a porch. To the right is a small ground level window.  The front of the house has four symmetrical windows on the second floor, lined up over three windows and the door on the first floor. The windows are highlighted by brown headers above them, and brown sills that protrude slightly from the stone wall.  There are three steps up to the elevated door, and on either side of the steps are small ground level windows.  In the foreground and to the right of the house is a wooden platform with two rectangular wooden support poles supporting a wooden well handle. In the background, behind the house a wooden fence is silhouetted against the low rising terrain beyond it.

CAPTION: Stone House, tour stop 3

CREDIT: NPS / FRANK HARRELL


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DESCRIBE: A small color photograph

DESCRIPTION: This is a small, square, modern color photograph of a single story house with white siding, and reddish stone foundation, viewed from a slight angle, right of center. In the center of the siding and foundation, a vertical piece separates the wall into two halves not aligned, where the right side foundation is taller, and the siding starts higher than the left, as if part was added on later.  The house fills the photograph, with only a small portion of green grass and a little blue sky with wispy clouds. A white chimney sits in the center of the dark gray, shingled roof facing the viewer, and a little bit of white is staining the shingles just below and in front of where the chimney meets the roof.  Facing the house there are two doors, with a window in between. One door, on the left side is an elevated white, closed door, with a knob on its left. Three gray wooden steps climb to meet it. The other door, on the right side is another white, closed door, and has a paneled surface. Five steps lead up to a landing with three white rails on each side. The step faces are white and the surfaces of the steps and landing are gray. A small white double hung window, with 12 panes of glass sits just left of the door on the right. In the foreground the grassy area forms a bank dropping down toward the viewer. On the right side of the bank, even with and in front of the landing steps, four stone steps climb up the bank, then an area of grass leads to the steps for the landing. There is a small green tree in the right foreground, a taller green tree behind the house and left of center, and in the upper left corner a telephone pole and power lines disappear behind the house.   

CAPTION: Lucinda Dogan House at Groveton, tour stop 8

CREDIT: NPS

RELATED TEXT: The small frame Dogan House is all that remains of the crossroads village of Groveton. It was over the Dogan farm fields that the Union assault upon the Deep Cut was broken. The Groveton Confederate Cemetery, established in 1869, contains as many as 500 Confederate dead in trench graves identified by state. The identities of only a few are known.

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DESCRIBE: A small color photograph

DESCRIPTION: This is a small square, modern color photograph of a brown and reddish brown stone, double arched bridge over a creek, under a clear blue sky.  The view is from the bank on the left front of the bridge. In the left foreground brown soil mixed, with sparse green grass and gray rocks slopes down to a wide shallow creek, that runs from the viewers right rear to left front and into the two arched passageways under the bridge. A large tree trunk lays in the water parallel and next to the near bank, and several other pieces of brush, branches and other debris litter the water. On the far side of the creek, the ground climbs up to the far end of the bridge, passing small brush and a tree leaning toward the creek with exposed roots. The left two thirds of the near side of the bridge is constructed of mostly red and brown stone, while the far right end structure looks to be composed of more gray stone with a vertical line distinguishing the change in color. A reddish brown stone lip tops the side of the bridge facing the viewer along the entire span. On the far side of the bridge, in the background, several small and medium sized trees stick up above the bridge. Light green brush on the left gives way to taller dark green trees in the center, and then an absence of trees on the right.  

CAPTION: Stone Bridge, tour stop 12

CREDIT: BILL FLEITZ

RELATED TEXT:  Finally, under cover of darkness, the defeated Union army withdrew across Bull Run in this vicinity toward Centreville and the Washington defenses beyond. Lee’s bold and brilliant Second Manassas campaign opened the way for the South’s first invasion of the North and possible European recognition of the Confederate government.


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Text on the Back side of brochure associated with Second Battle of Manassas (Second Bull Run) driving tour

DESCRIPTION:  On the back of the brochure, the driving tour information covers the Battle of Second Manassas (Second Bull Run) during 12 stops.  It starts with an introductory paragraph.

RELATED TEXT: This 18-mile driving tour is designed to cover 12 locations that figured prominently in the second battle. Each tour stop features a parking lot, interpretive markers, and walking trails. Follow the text below, keyed to the park map. Please drive carefully.

1  Brawner Farm. On August 28, 1862, Gen. Stonewall Jackson concealed his troops on Stony Ridge, just north of tenant farmer John Brawner’s fields. In the evening a column of Union troops of the ”Black Hat” Brigade was marching east along the Warrenton Turnpike toward Centreville when Confederate artillery opened fire. Turning to drive off the guns, the midwesterners encountered the massed infantry of the Stonewall Brigade. More troops were fed into the struggle by both sides, and the lines exchanged volleys for nearly two hours, in places only 80 yards apart. This opening clash of the second battle ended with darkness. Nearly a third of the 7,000 troops engaged became casualties during the stubborn combat.

2   Battery Heights.  As the battle at Brawner Farm began, Capt. Joseph Campbell’s Battery B, 4th US Artillery, deployed along this ridge. The fire of these six guns effectively silenced the opposing Confederate batteries. Two days later, on the afternoon of August 30, Capt. William Chapman’s Dixie Artillery occupied this elevation, contributing to the repulse of the huge Union attack on Jackson’s line at the Deep Cut of the unfinished railroad. A converging fire of 36 Confederate cannon from massed batteries on the Brawner Farm shattered the Union infantry maneuvering over the open fields to the northeast. Chapman’s four guns joined this concentrated fire to strike the flank and rear of the wavering Union troops, hastening their retreat.

Stone House. Convinced that Jackson was isolated, Pope ordered his columns to converge upon and attack the Confederates. He was sure he could destroy Jackson before Lee and Longstreet intervened. During the fighting on August 29 and 30, Pope made his headquarters on Buck Hill directly behind this house. The house sheltered the wounded as a Union field hospital during both battles.

4  Matthews Hill. On August 29, Pope’s army found Jackson’s troops behind the cuts and fills of an unfinished railroad grade west of here. Throughout the day the fields across the road were awash with Union soldiers forming for assaults against the Confederates. Jackson’s line was strained, but remained unbroken. Union artillery batteries were positioned along the ridge across the road.

5  Sudley.  Throughout August 29, Federal troops repeatedly attacked Jackson’s left flank—Gen. Maxcy Gregg’s South Carolina brigade—on a knoll just west of here. In late afternoon Gen. Philip Kearny’s Union division drove back Gregg’s exhausted troops, their ammunition depleted. Only darkness prevented a fatal collapse of the Confederates. Meanwhile, unknown to Pope, Longstreet’s troops arrived on the battlefield near Groveton to the south and deployed on Jackson’s right flank, overlapping the exposed Union left beyond the Warrenton Turnpike.

6  Unfinished Railroad.   Jackson’s line covered a front of about one and one-half miles, extending from near the Sudley Church to a point three-quarters of a mile southwest of here. The center of his line rested in this area. The focal point of Jackson’s position was the bed of the unfinished railroad. The grade is still visible running into the woods on both sides of the road.

7  Deep Cut.  The morning of August 30 passed with desultory skirmishing. Just before noon, mistakenly believing the Confederates to be in retreat, Pope ordered a “pursuit.” The brief advance revealed Jackson’s Confederates steadfast behind the unfinished railroad. Pope ordered a final massive assault of some 8,000 troops against Jackson’s line around the Deep Cut. About 3 pm, Union troops of Gen. Fitz John Porter’s V Corps and Gen. Irvin McDowell’s III Corps maneuvered in dense formations to attack up the slope. Exposed to raking Confederate artillery fire from the Brawner Farm less than one-half mile to the west, and then to sheets of musket fire from Jackson’s infantry, the Union assault was shattered and bloodily repulsed.

8  Groveton. The small frame Dogan House is all that remains of the crossroads village of Groveton. It was over the Dogan farm fields that the Union assault upon the Deep Cut was broken. The Groveton Confederate Cemetery, established in 1869, contains as many as 500 Confederate dead in trench graves identified by state. The identities of only a few are known.

9  New York Monuments. On the afternoon of August 30, seeing the Union lines in disarray following the repulse of Porter, Longstreet pushed his massive columns forward and staggered the Union left flank. A brief, futile stand on this ridge by the 5th and 10th New York Regiments ended in slaughter. In five minutes, the 5th New York lost 123 men—the greatest loss of life in any single infantry regiment in any battle of the Civil War

10 Chinn Ridge.  Stretched along this ridge, Union troops desperately struggled on August 30 to delay Longstreet’s counterattack upon Pope’s vulnerable left flank long enough for Pope to form a rearguard on Henry Hill. The stone foundation is all that remains of Hazel Plain, the house of Benjamin Chinn. A trail leads to the boulder marker for Col. Fletcher Webster, eldest son of Sen. Daniel Webster, killed leading the 12th Massachusetts Infantry into battle. 

From tour stop 10 turn right on VA 234. At the traffic light, turn left on Battleview Parkway and follow signs to tour stop 11.

11  Portici.  The plantation house of Francis Lewis stood atop the ridge to the east. Massive brick chimneys flanked the frame house, which had served as Confederate headquarters during the First Battle of Manassas. On August 30, 1862, during the Second Battle of Manassas, Union and Confederate cavalry clashed on these fields. The house was destroyed by fire in late 1862.

12 Stone Bridge.   Finally, under cover of darkness, the defeated Union army withdrew across Bull Run in this vicinity toward Centreville and the Washington defenses beyond. Lee’s bold and brilliant Second Manassas campaign opened the way for the South’s first invasion of the North and possible European recognition of the Confederate government.

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Park map on Back side of brochure

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DESCRIBE: A park map

DESCRIPTION: This is a color way-finding map, an overhead view of about a 25 square mile area, containing the Manassas Battlefield National Park within it, along with directional relationship to the cities of Washington DC, Front Royal, and Manassas.  With north at the top, the park's irregularly shaped land generally runs northeast to southwest, and is highlighted in light green, with boundary lines in dark green, and non-park land in white.  Facing the map, the shape somewhat resembles a child's not to scale drawing of a fish, with head down to the left, a short fat body, large upper dorsal fin, tail up to the right, and wide fat tail fins.

The namesake creek, Bull Run, comes in from the southeast, and runs along the outline of the, "tail of the fish" or northeast border of the park, and then recontacts the park border at the tip of the, "upper fin," before continuing north and off the map. 

Coming in from the upper right, or northeast, bisecting the park from northeast to southwest is highway 29, the Lee Highway.  Running along the southern park border, from the northeast, Highway 66 initially parallels highway 29, and then after crossing Sudley Road, starts to angle in toward highway 29, continuing to mark the southern park boundary.  Intersecting Lee Highway perpendicularly, just right of park center, and also intersecting highway 66 at the southern border, Sudley Road runs from the 11 o'clock position at the top left, down to the 5 o'clock position in the lower right.

Dividing the map in fourths, the upper left quadrant contains, starting at the top: the scale of the map, where 1 inch equals 1/2 mile; a circled arrow pointing north toward the top of the map; dashed gray line marking walking trails; dashed red line marking wheel-chair accessible trails; and at the bottom, black and white symbols that mark locations for: wheel-chair accessible locations, restroom locations, picnic area locations, and parking areas for horse trailers. 

Most of these amenities are located in the lower left quadrant, at the Stuart's Hill Center, the park's administration headquarters at the extreme southwest end of the park; and at Brownsville, about a mile east of the headquarters. Both locations are accessible by road and trails. 

In the lower right quadrant, the Henry Hill visitor's center is highlighted by a large green callout box, and is accessible from the south via highway 66 and Sudley Road, or from the north via highway 29 and Sudley Road. Also in this quadrant, a half mile southeast of the Henry Hill Visitor Center is the Manassas Campus of the Northern Virginia Community College, highlighted by a narrow and horizontal tan rectangle, that borders the park, and accessible off Sudley Road. 

The upper right quadrant of the map has additional map key information, including; a red silhouette of a bullet, as the symbol marking the driving tour route, parking area markers, indicated by gray half circles, and hollow squares, marking historic sites. Red dots with white numbers mark the tour route. The route starts at stop number 1 in the southwest end of the park, winds its meandering way through the park, ending up at stop 12 in the north east end. The bridge pictured on the front of the brochure is located at stop 12, and the stone house is at stop 3. The walking trail route also winds throughout the park, and intersects each of the driving tour stops.


     
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OVERVIEW: Accessibility

DESCRIPTION: Brief accessibility information is located in the last column on the lower right of the brochure.

Manassas National Battlefield Park has many accessibility features, including designated handicapped parking areas, Visitor Center and trail accessibility to wheelchair users, tactile exhibits and displays, open-captioned exhibits for hearing impaired, audio assisted listening devices, and audio description of the film.  Audio guides also are available at the visitors center. A more detailed description of accessibility features is available at our website at www.nps.guv/mana.,

RELATED TEXT:  We strive to make our facilities, services, and programs accessible to all. For more information about any of these; ask a ranger, call the park visitor center at (703) 361-1339, or check our web site at: www.nps.gov/mana.

  





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OVERVIEW: More information

MORE INFORMATION: This section, on the lower half of the last column on the brochure, provides park rules and contact information.

RELATED TEXT: Please help us preserve this historic area by observing our regulations:

Pets must be leashed at all times.• Please clean up after pets. • Do not climb on cannons and monuments. • Picnicking, kite flying, ball games, and other recreational activities are restricted to designated picnic areas. • Alcoholic beverages are prohibited. • Fires are permitted in grills at the picnic areas.• Extinguish fires before you leave. • Bicycles are prohibited on all park trails.• Use caution when riding bicycles on roads due to narrow shoulders and heavy traffic. • Possessing and using metal detectors, and hunting for relics, are prohibited. • Motorized vehicles must stay on established roads and are prohibited on shoulders, grassy areas, and trails.• Fishing is permitted at select sites with a valid state fishing license. • For firearms regulations check the park website.

About Your Visit:

Manassas National Battlefield Park is open daily during daylight hours except Thanksgiving and December 25. Henry Hill Visitor Center, open daily, provides maps, information, restrooms, a bookstore, a film, and exhibits.

More Information:

Manassas National Battlefield Park

6511 Sudley Rd.

Manassas, VA 20109

703-361-1339

www.nps.gov/mana

Emergencies call 911

Manassas National Battlefield Park is one of over 400 parks in the National Park System. To learn more, visit www.nps.gov

OTHER INFORMATION:

Join the National Park Foundation, park community, visit, www.nationalparks.org.

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