Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers National Monument

Audio Available:

OVERVIEW: About this Audio-Described Brochure

Welcome to the audio-described version of Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers National Monument. Through text and audio descriptions of photos, illustrations, and maps, this version interprets the two-sided color brochure that Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers National Monument visitors received. The brochure explores the history of Charles Young and the Buffalo Soldiers, and information for planning your visit. This audio version is divided into 20 sections. Sections one through ten explores the front of the brochure and includes information regarding Charles Young's life and military attributions. Sections eleven through twenty explores the back of the brochure which consists of information on the Buffalo Soldiers and Charles Young's impact on African Americans. There is also further information on accessibilty.

↑ back to top

OVERVIEW: Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers National Monument

The Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers National Monument, located in Wilberforce, Ohio, is part of the National Park Service, within the Department of the Interior. The 60 acre park is situated three miles east of Xenia at the edge of city limits. This park, established in 2013, is the youngest of the national parks in Ohio. Each year, thousands of visitors come to enjoy the unique experiences that only can be had at the Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers National Monument. We invite you to explore the park's natural beauty and landmark structure. Take a hike and hear the crunch of pine needles underfoot. For those seeking to learn more about the park during their visit, informative audio guides and tactile maps of the region also can be found at the visitor center. To find out more about what resources might be available or to contact the park directly, visit the "Accessibility" and "More Information" sections at the end of this audio-described brochure.

↑ back to top

OVERVIEW: Front Side of Brochure

A one-inch-wide black band, similar to other National Park Service brochures, extends vertically across the top of the page. The upper left corner reads “Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers” and the upper right corner reads “National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior.” A brown, green, and white National Park Service arrowhead logo appears at the far right.

The opened brochure is divided into four sections. The top section below the black band features pictures and an overview of Charles Young, his family, and career highlights. The second section shows a world map showing the places in Asia, America, Europe, and Africa where Young and his family served, with pictures showing some of the locations. The third section shows a timeline of “World of Charles Young.” The bottom section features pictures of Charles Young and the Buffalo Soldiers.


↑ back to top

IMAGES and TEXT: Youngsholm


IMAGE 1 of 2: Building

DESCRIPTION: Youngsholm

This is a photograph of Young family home, affectionately called Youngsholm by the Colonel. This two story painted brick residence was purchased by Colonel Charles Young in approximately 1907. The first floor is defined by an expansive columned front porch with a wide over hang and peaked entryway. Three steps lead from the front lawn to the porch. The center of the peak has a decorative medallion. There are two windows on either side of the entry on the first floor and four additional windows on the second floor. There is also a window on the second floor just above the entry peak. Directly above the main entry and above the second floor is an additional peaked roof section that emerges from the front roof line decorated with a small half circle window and fan-like wood panels designed to resemble rays of the sun. There is one chimney that rises from the roof on the right side of the photo. 


 CREDIT: Wikimedia Commons/NYTTEND


IMAGE 2 of 2: Sword

DESCRIPTION: Running right to left directly under the photo of the Young's home is an image of an long, straight ceremonial infantry sword with a pointed tip. The sword has an ivory handle and decorative medal knob at the end. Between the handle and the sword is a decorative metal cross resembling those seen on Masonic swords. Meaning that the horizontal portion of the cross has on either side a three-pointed decorated metal piece extending out away from the center. 


CREDIT: NPS


RELATED TEXT: 
Family and duty were dual drivers in the life of Colonel Charles Young. When he came home he would put down his sword and enjoy time with family and friends. He also played several instruments, and wrote songs, poetry, and plays.

↑ back to top

IMAGES and TEXT: Family

IMAGE 1 of 4: Circular portrait

DESCRIPTION: This is an oval, black and white photo of Ada Young, the wife of Charles Young. The studio-quality image shows Ada from the waist looking into the camera over her left shoulder. She is wearing a dark dress, a single strand of pearls, and clip-on earrings. Her long, straight, dark hair is pinned up in a bun on the back of her head. She is smiling slightly and has a sincere look on her face. There is a painted landscape panel behind her.

CREDIT: National Afro-American Museum and Cultural Center


IMAGE 2 of 4: Family

DESCRIPTION: This is a rectangular, black and white photograph of the Young family taken in a studio. From right to left is Charles Young seated, wife Ada Young standing slightly behind Charles’ right shoulder, three-year-old daughter Marie Aurelia Young seated on an elevated stool in front of Ada’s right hip, and six-year-old son Charles Noel Young seated in a lower chair to Marie’s right. All four are looking straight at the camera with serious faces and no smiles. There is a photographic studio screen behind the family of a faded landscape. Charles is wearing a dark suit with a stick pin in his left lapel with a short chain suspended from it, a white collared shirt, a straight tie, and has his hands folded in front of him. The photo shows him from the waist up, and his hair is short and parted on his left side. Ada is wearing a dark two-piece suit, a flowered shirt underneath her jacket, and a large circular pin at her neckline. Her long, dark hair is parted in the middle and is pulled back in a bun. Marie is wearing a dark dress with a patterned apron, lacy collar, and has her hands in her lap. Her short hair has a large, dark bow pinned on the top left side. Charles Noel is wearing a sailor suit with three white stripes on each wide lapel over a white collarless shirt, His left hand is resting on his lap and his right hand on the arm of his chair.

CREDIT: National Afro-American Museum and Cultural Center


IMAGE 3 of 4: Handwritten note

DESCRIPTION: This image is a scan of the beginning of a letter written by Charles Young to his wife Ada. The letters are easy to read, and his cursive handwriting is graceful and elegant. The letter reads: “My dearest Ada: I hope this letter reaches you before your arrival in New York.” The remainder of the letter is cut off in the scan.

CREDIT: National Afro-American Museum and Cultural Center


IMAGE 4 of 4: Signature

DESCRIPTION:This image is a scan of Charles Young’s actual signature. The letters are easy to read, and his cursive handwriting is graceful and elegant. He abbreviated his first name as Chas followed by a period and fully spelled out his last name.

CREDIT: NPS/CHYO


RELATED TEXT:
Young’s drive to succeed included his family. He and Ada (above), who attended Spelman College, sent their children to good schools. Ada was active in civil rights and the women’s right to vote. She also managed the family’s businesses.

↑ back to top

IMAGES and TEXT: Achievements

IMAGE 1 of 4: Newspaper cutout

DESCRIPTION: This is a color photograph of the top portion of a cutout of a newspaper article, the paper brown with age. The article headline reads, all in capital letters: “THE SECOND SPINGARN MEDAL IS AWARDED TO MAJOR CHARLES YOUNG.” The byline under the headline reads, in bold letters: “Won For Organizing and Training the Constabulary of Liberia.”

CREDIT: National Afro-American Museum and Cultural Center


IMAGE 2 of 4: Bronce Medal

DESCRIPTION: This is a color photograph of a bronze medal awarded to Charles Young. The side of the medal shown has two shields on the top with the dates 1917 and 1919. In the center of the medal is a rectangular area with the words, all in capital letters: “AWARDED TO CHARLES YOUNG, U.S. ARMY, BY THE CITIZENS OF JEFFERSON COUNTY, OHIO. On the bottom of the medal is another section that reads, in capital letters: “FOR SERVICE IN THE WORLD’S GREAT WAR FOR LIBERTY AND THE FREEDOM OF ALL NATIONS.”

CREDIT: Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture


IMAGE 3 of 4: Charles Young on horse

DESCRIPTION: This is a black and white photo of a uniformed Charles Young on horseback, who is looking at a black child in uniform saluting him. The image shows a side view of Young mounted on a dark horse. Young is wearing his dark blue cavalry uniform, shoulder boards, a campaign hat, cavalry gloves, light blue pants with a white stripe running down the side, boots, and spurs. He is seated on a military saddle, mounted over a saddle blanket, with his boot in the stirrup, his right gloved hand at his side, and his left gloved hand resting on the pommel of the saddle holding the reins of the horse. The horse, which is dark and shiny, is looking down and ahead, with all four hooves planted firmly on the ground. The uniformed African American boy, who is saluting Young, has his back to the camera. The boy is about six years old and wearing a dark coat and pants and a white scarf around his neck. He is saluting Young with his right hand and wearing a military kepi cap with a small round top and short bill.

CAPTION: From black officer in a buffalo soldier regiment: the military career of Charles Young by Brian Shellum

CREDIT: National Afro-American Museum and Cultural Center


IMAGE 4 of 4: Camp Grant

DESCRIPTION: This black and white photo shows Colonel Charles Young and a white officer standing and talking in front of the steps of a military barracks. Young is wearing his olive drab service dress uniform, cavalry boots, and his service dress cap with a round top and medium visor. He is facing the camera and walking away from the barracks. The white officer, who is in a more informal khaki uniform and campaign hat, is walking and talking with Young and has his hands on his hips. Behind both officers is a large barracks building with steps leading to a pillared, two-story porch. The first step is concrete and the next six steps leading to the porch floor are made of wood. The steps have a metal railing and on the pillar above the railing is a sign that reads “Co. 10.”

CREDIT: National Afro-American Museum and Cultural Center


RELATED TEXT:
The NAACP honored Young in 1916. The army was not supportive and kept Young out of World War I. He rode his horse from Ohio to DC to prove his fitness. Instead, he was sent to Camp Grant in Illinois to train troops.

↑ back to top

IMAGE and TEXT: Charles Young

DESCRIPTION: A full-length portrait of Charles Young, an African American soldier, staring straight ahead towards the viewer.  He is wearing a dress uniform with a peaked cap with leather bill on his head. Both of his arms hang straight down along both of his sides with his hands resting against his pants. His blouse has five button spaced equally apart in a vertical orientation which begin just under the raised collar of the blouse that wraps around his neck. His breeches are flared out at the thigh area and become wrapped to his legs at the knee and below.  There are thick leather gaiters with three straps at the top, middle and bottom, around each of his legs which begin at each knee and go down to the tops of his boots at his ankles. 

CAPTION: Lieutenant Young in  dress (Class A) uniform around 1919. Young served around the world, as the map below show—from the American frontier to duty in Africa and Asia, and back again. 

CREDIT: National Afro-American Museum and Cultural Center


RELATED TEXT:
Charles Young is the man behind this new national monument. His inspirational life embodies the hope and opportunity that military service has provided African Americans since the mid-1800s. Young’s career began as a leader of the Buffalo Soldiers, whose story is also told at this park. The map shows the range of his work and photographs illustrate his life in the field and at home. Explore the life of Charles Young and how his influence continues today.

↑ back to top

TEXT: Yours for race and country

“Yours for Race and Country”

These words closed many of Charles Young’s letters. Recipients knew exactly what mattered most to Young. He lived at a time when African Americans faced significant headwinds. The reforms of post-Civil War Reconstruction were crumbling under the force of segregation in the South and racism throughout the nation. Yet he conducted his life as an example of service to his country and in support of racial equality.

In 1903, he met Ada Mills while he was stationed in San Francisco, California. After they married, they traveled together as much as they could. When they were apart, they often wrote to each other. In the time before long-distance calls and computers, handwritten letters were the only way loved ones could share their experiences and maintain relationships. Young often closed his letters to Ada with: Forever and a day, the one that loves you—Charlie.


↑ back to top

IMAGES: The World of Charles Young

IMAGE 1 of 7: World map

DESCRIPTION: This full page image highlights the locations throughout the world where Colonel Charles Young and his family lived and worked during his career. The backdrop is a flat, illustrated world map with the United States in the middle. On the left side of the page is the map of Asia and the Pacific ocean; on the left side is a map of Europe and Africa and the Atlantic ocean. Superimposed over the world map are photographs of Colonel Young and his family with arrows pointing to the places in the Philippines, in Wyoming, in the Sequoia National Park in California, at home in Wilberforce, Ohio, in Belgium and in Liberia, Africa.

CREDIT: National Afro-American Museum and Cultural Center


IMAGE 2 of 7: 

DESCRIPTION: This grainy black and white photograph shows six rows of American soldiers from the 9th Cavalry in the Philippines in front of what appears to be army barracks. Eight army officers sit in the front row, Colonel Young and Samuel Pearson sit in the center. Five rows of soldiers stand behind them. 

CAPTION: Philippines , Young (seated, center, front row) with the 9th Cavalry, during the Philippine War (1901–02). He sits next to Samuel Pearson, who became a lifelong friend. 

CREDIT: National Afro-American Museum and Cultural Center


IMAGE 3 of 7: Young in Wyoming

DESCRIPTION: This black and white photo shows Young in the field in Wyoming. He is seated on what appear to be grain sacks. He is dressed in an army issue winter coat and a hat with ear flaps. Immediately in the background is an Army tent. One African American man stands inside the tent holding a support pole, while another approaches the tent from the right hand side. 

CAPTION: Fort D. A. Russell, Wyoming , Young in western Wyoming, around 1910. He trained soldiers in the field year-round. 

CREDIT: National Afro-American Museum and Cultural Center


IMAGE 4 of 7: Sequoia National Park

DESCRIPTION: Set in the Sequoia National Park, this photo shows Colonel Young seated on the ground amongst twenty-five largely white workmen. They are all sitting or standing casually around the Colonel in the foreground. All of the men except one wear wide-rimmed work hats. The men are all wearing light colored collared shirts. Some men are wearing jackets and some wear vests. Several men in the group hold tools, including shovels and axes. The group is positioned on the dirt forest floor with large sequoia trees in the background.


CAPTION: Sequoia National Park, California , Buffalo Soldiers, led by Young (front row, center) built roads and trails in Sequoia National Park. Some of these routes are still used today. 

CREDIT: National Afro-American Museum and Cultural Center


IMAGE 5 of 7: Youngs' children

DESCRIPTION: This photograph shows the two Young children on their family farm in Wilberforce, Ohio. Marie is standing on the left with Charles Noel on the right.  She is wearing a long-sleeved collared shirt, long light-colored overalls and a wide-brimmed straw hat. A handkerchief is tied around her neck. She is carrying a small shovel. There is an adult standing behind her to her right. Only a portion of this person is visible in the photo. Next to her is her older brother, Charles Noel. He is also dressed in a long sleeved shirt and overalls. He is wearing a dark wide brimmed straw hat and a scarf around his neck. He is carrying a small rake. The children are standing in front of a picket fence with several shade trees in the background. 

CAPTION: Wilberforce, Ohio , The Youngs’ children, Marie Aurelia and Charles Noel, often helped with farming at Youngsholm. 

CREDIT: National Afro-American Museum and Cultural Center


IMAGE 6 of 7: Charles and Ada Young

DESCRIPTION: This photograph shows Colonel Young standing in the back row of a group of nineteen people. Seated directly in front of the Colonel is his wife, Ada. The group is of eleven men and nine women, all dressed in western clothing of the time. The men wear shirts and ties and some also wear suit jackets. The women wear period dresses, with pinafores and decorative lace. One woman wears a stylish hat Edwardian period hat, with a large upward sweeping front brim. One woman is seated in a wheel chair. There are two young children, one sitting on a woman’s lap, another seated on the ground in the foreground. Some of the men also ear fedoras. They are positioned in front of a thatched roof building with glass windows and shutters.


CAPTION: Liberia, Charles and Ada Young in Liberia. He was the first African American military attaché; his duty was to report on conditions in other countries. 

CREDIT: National Afro-American Museum and Cultural Center


IMAGE 7 of 7: Marie Aurelia and Charles Noel

DESCRIPTION: These are two black and white photographs of the Young’s children set separately in oval cut outs. The first photo on the left is a portrait of Charles Noel from the mid chest up. He is dressed in a dark suit jacket and high collared button down white shirt. He is wearing a wide tie with a pin running through the knotted portion of the tie. His lapels are notched with button hole cutouts. In his front suit coat chest pocket is a handkerchief. He has short, cropped hair. He is glancing forward to his right and has a confident, thoughtful expression.

Next to and slightly above the photo of Charles Noel is a photo of Marie Aurelia. She is wearing a light floral, high collared dress with a decorative bow and high ruffled shoulders. Her hair is pulled neatly back with twists extending from a center part down towards her ears. She is looking to her right and slightly down directly into the camera. She has a youthful, playful expression on her face.  


CAPTION: Belgium , Marie Aurelia and Charles Noel attended schools in Europe when their father was posted in Liberia. 

CREDIT: National Afro-American Museum and Cultural Center


↑ back to top

TEXT: From slavery to cadet

1864–89  Charles Young is born enslaved in Kentucky, graduates with honors from an integrated high school, and becomes the third African American to graduate from the US Military Academy at West Point. 

1863  Emancipation Proclamation 

Abraham Lincoln frees enslaved people in the seceded states. Slavery remains legal in the rest of the US. Young’s family in Kentucky is among those who remain enslaved despite the Emancipation Proclamation. They use the Underground Railroad to reach freedom in Ohio. 

1865  Thirteenth Amendment Ratified 

“Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.” 

1866  African American Units in the Army 

Congress establishes the first segregated Army units for African Americans. Later they are called Buffalo Soldiers. 


↑ back to top

TEXT: West Point to war

Young’s first decade as an Army officer begins and ends at remote posts. He also teaches at Wilberforce College and thrives in the town’s cultural atmosphere.

1872  A New Idea for the World 

March 1, the world’s first national park is established when President Ulysses S. Grant signs the Yellowstone National Park Protection Act. Buffalo Soldiers patrol this and other new parks, and build roads, trails, and structures.

1896  “Separate But Equal” 

The US Supreme Court confirms separate but equal facilities are legal for African Americans. The military’s segregation policies—like assigning Buffalo Soldiers to separate units. can continue.

1898 to 1902. International Wars 

The US is at war with Spain during 1898, then the Philippines 1899 to 1902. 

Young serves stateside during the Spanish American War. He leads troops into battle during the Philippine War.

↑ back to top

TEXT: Family and duty

Young experiences major personal and professional changes as he marries, starts a family, and advances his career through a variety of posts.

1903  Wright Brothers Take Flight 

Orville and Wilbur Wright, who live in Dayton, Ohio, succeed in flying their plane in North Carolina. In San Francisco, Young leads the 9th Cavalry in a parade for President Theodore Roosevelt. He also serves as first superintendent of Sequoia National Park.

1905  Niagara Movement 

W.E.B. Du Bois attracts national attention with this group, which encourages African Americans to seek civil rights through political action. Young becomes the first African American military attaché, serving in Haiti as a diplomat, historian, and cartographer.

1909  NAACP Established 

Followers of the Niagara Movement join other African American activists to found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).

↑ back to top

TEXT: Changing times

Charles Young is honored for his achievements but experiences more discrimination from the Army.

1914–18  The War to End All Wars 

War breaks out in Europe; the US declares war in 1917. The Army keeps Young out of the world war, then forces him to retire. In June 1918, Young rides his horse from Wilberforce, OH, to Washington, DC, to demonstrate his fitness. He is returned to duty, and later serves in Liberia.

1920  Women Get the Right to Vote 

The 19th Amendment is ratified 72 years after the First Women’s Rights Convention.

1921  Oklahoma Race Riot 

The deadliest riot to date, the Tulsa riot destroys the city’s African American neighborhood, leaving 300 dead and 10,000 homeless.

Late in 1921, Young becomes ill from a kidney infection while sailing to Lagos, Nigeria, on an assignment. He dies there on January 8, 1922. Ada receives the news three weeks later.


↑ back to top

IMAGES: Charles Young cadet to major

IMAGE 1 of 5: Young as a cadet

DESCRIPTION: This black and white professional photo was taken of Charles Young in 1889. He is wearing a kepi cap with a round top, a short visor, and the eagle insignia of a cadet. He has on his dress gray uniform with a single row of brass buttons and a white collar. The gray wool overcoat he is wearing over his uniform is open at the top.

CAPTION: As a cadet at West Point, Young succeeded despite the racism at the school and from his fellow cadets.

CREDIT: National Afro-American Museum and Cultural Center


IMAGE 2 of 5: Wilberforce

DESCRIPTION: This black and white photo shows Charles Young seated with twenty of his African American students at Wilberforce University in 1895. All the men are wearing dark suits and ties, and two of the students are holding fraternity banners marked with the Greek letters “BKE.” Three silk pillows are laying in front of the group on the floor.

CAPTION: Young and his students (cadets) at Wilberforce, around 1895. They hold fraternity banners.

CREDIT: National Afro-American Museum and Cultural Center


IMAGE 3 of 5: Social gathering

DESCRIPTION: This black and white photo shows Charles Young, his wife Ada Young, and his mother Arminta Young with two women and two men on the front lawn of his home. Young is seated on the grass with his legs crossed and all the others are standing. All members in the group are African American and dressed formally with the men in suits and women in long dresses. Behind the group is the front porch of the Young house shrubbery and a small greenhouse.

CAPTION: Youngsholm was the center of social gatherings. Young is sitting; Arminta third from left; Ada second from right.

CREDIT: National Afro-American Museum and Cultural Center


IMAGE 4 of 5: Major Young

DESCRIPTION: This is a black and white posed photo of Major Charles Young was taken in early 1916 prior to the presentation of the Spingarn Medal. Young is seated in an armchair wearing his service dress uniform with a double-row of brass buttons, high collar, shoulder boards, gold lace on his lower sleeves, and a single medal on his left breast. He is holding his white gloves in his right hand and the pommel of his officer saber in his left hand.

CAPTION: Major Young before the ceremony where he received the Spingarn Medal.

CREDIT: National Afro-American Museum and Cultural Center


IMAGE 5 of 5: Yellowstone National Park

DESCRIPTION:This black and white photo shows eight soldiers posing with their bicycles at a stepped geyser formation at Yellowstone National Park in 1896. The soldiers are wearing blue army uniforms, boots, suspenders, and campaign hats. There are packs suspended from the front handlebars of their bicycles.

CAPTION: The 25th Infantry Bicycle Corps poses in Yellowstone National Park, 1896.

CREDIT: Montana Historical Society/F. Jay Haynes

↑ back to top

OVERVIEW: Back Side of Brochure


A one-inch-wide black band, similar to other National Park Service brochures, extends across the top of the page. The upper left corner reads “Buffalo Soldiers.”

The opened brochure is divided into three sections. The top section below the black band features 300 Years of Service and Segregation and a timeline runs from left to right with pictures and images. The middle section centers on a circular image of Charles Young and is surrounded by oval images of people in his “Circle of Influence." The bottom section features maps, photos, and directions for visitors.


↑ back to top

IMAGE and TEXT: Buffalo Soldiers 300 Years of Service and Segregation

IMAGE 1 of 2: Troops

DESCRIBING: A rectangle black and white landscape image of the 4th U.S. Colored Troops.  

Description: Twenty-four African American men are standing tall, side by side each other in two lines. Fifteen men are in the front line and nine men are in the second line. The lines of men are positioned closely together. The man on the far left of the image is wearing a coat, waist length, with buttoned down the center of the jackets, evenly placed in a line. On the arms of the coat are U.S. Army ranking symbols. It is three strips in a 'L' shape facing downward. He is wearing a belt around his waist with a buckle in the middle. His hands are placed directly below his belt and holding a sword that extends to the ground. His fabric hat has a leather brim and a decorative design in the middle. The men in the middle of posed and wearing the same time. They are wearing coats that reach below the hip with buttons placed in the middle. A belt is around the waist of the men and a buckle is in the middle of the belt. The men in front are holding long rifles with the barrel of the rifle facing up and the bottom of the rifle touching the ground. The men are holding the rifles with both hands wrapped around the rifle. Their left hand is placed above their right hand. The men are wearing fabric hats with a leather brim and a decorative design in the middle. The man on the far right is not holding a rifle. He is dressed in the same attire and stand as the other without a belt. The men faces are a bit blurry, making it hard to distinguish facial emotions. They are standing on dirt with a light house with two windows behind them. 

CAPTION: Civil War: 4th US Colored Troops

CREDIT: Library of Congress/William Morris Smith


IMAGE 2 of 2: Martin Delany

DESCRIBE:Martin Delany, a slave abolitionist, was the first African American man to become an officer. The picture displays a full body black and white portrait of Delany staring away from the camera wearing a dark civil war uniform with a hat. The hat is a Stetson-style hat with a wide brim that curves up from the base of the hat to the edges. He wears a dark, long uniform jacket that reaches slightly above his kneecaps with four buttons going down the left and right chest. On the left shoulder of the jacket, there is a rank shoulder board. A wide belt is shown wrapped around his waist with a scabbard attached on the left hip and two long tassels dangling from the belt just in front of his left leg, reaching down to about just below is left kneecap. Delany is holding the middle of the scabbard with left hand. On the right side of his hip he is holding a sword with the point on the ground and the handle in his right hand. Delaney is also wearing dark pants with a thin light-colored vertical stripe on the left side of the pant leg and dark-colored boots.

CAPTION: Martin Delany

CREDIT: NPS


RELATED TEXT:
African Americans are fighting for this country as early as King William’s War (1689–97), a war that cements British power in America. In 1770, Crispus Attucks—of African and American Indian descent—is killed during the Boston Massacre. Over 6,000 African Americans fight in the American Revolution (1775–83); over 200,000 fight for the Union in the Civil War (1861–65). Charles Young’s father Gabriel escapes slavery and serves in the 5th US Colored Troops. Martin Delany (below) is the first African American to become an officer. They are among the many whose military service helps them achieve a level of equality impossible as civilians. But true integration in the military takes 100 more years.

↑ back to top

IMAGE and TEXT: After the Civil War 1866 onward

Describing: A black and white illustration of U.S. Army William Cathay.


DESCRIPTION: A drawing of African American U.S. Army soldier Cathy William, displayed from above the knees. She was the first African American female to enlist in the Army in 1866. She posed as a man and joined under the name William Cathay. She is standing slightly slanted to the right with her left shoulder lower than her right shoulder. She is facing west with a gazing look in her eyes. Her hair is combed back, tucked behind the ears, and an inch above her shoulders. She is wearing a dark coat with buttons on the center of the body and a collar. Her top button is closed but the top is a light shirt that is visible on her neck. Around the waist of the coat is a leather belt. In the center of the belt is a oval buckle with a decorative design. Her pants are plain. Her right and left arms are bend towards her body. In her right hand, she is grasping a wooden rifle near the top of the barrel. The rifle has three inch-thick, steel bands, it is evenly placed on the top, middle, and bottom. On the top of the rifle is a steel bayonet attachment. In her left hand, she is carrying a dark kepi cap. It has a leather brim in the front with a black leather band attached above the brim. The top of the fabric hat is slouched over. Displayed on top of the hat. The horn shape is slightly curved with a half-circle shape in the middle. On her body she is carrying a light blanket on her back that is strapped under her shoulders and across her chest. On her right shoulder is a thick strapped bag that crosses on her body to her left hip. On the same shoulder is a smaller thick strap that crosses under her left shoulder. On her left shoulder is a thick leather square bag that crosses above her right hip. In the middle of the strap, on her chest, is a circle buckle with a decorative design. In the middle of the square is another  circle buckle with a decorative design.

CAPTION: Cathy Williams as William Cathay

CREDIT: US Army/William Jennings


RELATED TEXT:
In 1866, Congress establishes the first African American army units. Soon called Buffalo Soldiers, they control conflicts between settlers and American Indians. Cathy Williams (below) enlists as a man to earn better pay and explore the US. In 1889, Charles Young begins his career with the 9th Cavalry at Fort Robinson, Nebraska.

↑ back to top

IMAGE and TEXT: International Wars 1898-1902

Describing, Black and white landscape photograph of Buffalo Soldiers.

description, A black and white image of the Buffalo Soldiers in the 9th or 10th Calvary U.S. Army preparing to mount onto their horses. The middle of the image is focused and fades into the left and right sides. In the middle of the image is one soldier, beside him are two other soldiers, behind the three soldiers are other soldiers. The soldiers are swinging their right leg over the back of the horse to seat onto the saddle. The saddles are wrapped around the belly of the horse, they have a small back lip and foot holders on each side. On the right side of the horses' neck is a long rifle carrier. The horses are strapped in harnesses around their body and face. The soldiers are wearing US Army uniform with a top hat, coat, and pants. The horses are standing on grass with a few trees and a clear sky in the background.

caption, Buffalo Soldiers

credit, US Army Heritage and Education Center


related text. In the 1898 Spanish American War, Buffalo Soldiers come to the aid of Theodore Roosevelt and his Rough Riders in Cuba. Major Young serves stateside by preparing other soldiers for battle. The next year, he prepares for the Philippine War, 1899 to 1902. Now the rank of captain, he leads troops into battle on several islands.

↑ back to top

IMAGE and TEXT: Transitions 1900-20

Description: A small group of young African American who are Tuskegee Airmen staring away from the camera sitting down. The young man to the far left of the photo is wearing an officer hat with a dark coat and dark fur collar, and dark pants. This young man has his right arm resting on top of his left arm which is placed on his right leg. The man to the right is wearing a forward baseball cap, leather jacket with a patch on his left chest and patch on the top of his right arm jacket, he is also wearing a white scarf around his neck that is tucked inside of his leather jacket. His right arm is resting on the left leg of man to the left of him. Two other men are sitting behind the first two gentlemen wearing leather coats as well.  

Caption: Tuskegee Airmen

Credit: Library of Congress / Toni Frissell


Related Text: Buffalo Soldiers lead the way using new military tactics and weapons. In the Philippines, they fight the way they learned from American Indians, in small groups striking quickly. In the Mexican Punitive Expedition of 1916, captain Charles Young uses motor vehicles and machine guns to chase Mexican revolutionary Pancho Villa.

↑ back to top

IMAGE and TEXT: World Wars 1917-45

DESCRIPTION:This is a black and white photograph of a very large group of African American Soldiers standing at the position of attention, facing forward towards the camera. All of the soldiers are standing in perfect rows and columns, side by side. There are four soldiers standing in the front of the group. The soldier on the left has a rifle held vertically against his right front shoulder and supported by his right hand. The soldier second from the left is holding the American flag on a pole with his hands holding the pole vertically to his right front side. The next two soldiers are holding rifles vertically against their right front shoulders and supported by their right hands.

CAPTION: WWII

CREDIT: National Archives


RELATED TEXT:
In World War I, the US Army keeps the Harlem Hellfighters out of combat. So they fight for France instead, becoming the first African American troops to fight in Europe. In World War II, the heroic fighting of segregated units like the Mumford Point Marines, Triple Nickel Tank Battalion, and Tuskegee Airmen lead to more equality.


↑ back to top

IMAGE and TEXT: Military Integration 1948-90s

DESCRIPTION:This is a black and white horizontal photo of an African American 2nd Infantry Division machine gun unit comprised black and white soldiers. The soldiers are all wearing dark-colored helmets that cover their heads down to the bottom of their ears. The man on the left is crouched down, over a dirt pile with his torso showing as he points out to an area in front of him with his right arm. There are three other soldiers crouched down in a pit with only their torsos showing above the dirt line. There is a white soldier in the background looking down into the hole. There is a black soldier in the foreground at the front of the pit behind a large and long machine gun that has a long barrel extending away from the soldier. The soldier is holding the gun at the rear of the barrel with his right hand on the handle and his left hand on top of the handle. There is a string of brightly-colored and shiny ammunition that enters the gun on the right and is fed from a dark-colored rectangular canister placed on the pit’s edge to the right. There is one other white soldier sitting behind the canister on the far right staring out beyond the pit.

CAPTION: Korea

CREDIT: US Army Heritage and Education Center


RELATED TEXT:
On July 26, 1948, President Truman signs Executive Order 9981, which states everyone in the military is equal “without regard to race, color, religion or national origin.” The last unit of Buffalo Soldiers, the 24th Infantry, disbands in 1951. In Vietnam and the Persian Gulf wars, African Americans are finally serving in a fully integrated US military.

↑ back to top

IMAGE and TEXT: Their Legacy

DESCRIPTION:This is a color photograph of an African American Park Ranger named Shelton Johnson shown from waist level. The background shows several tall, vertical pine trees and an opening revealing a light blue-white sky. He is dressed as a Buffalo Solider wearing a dark blue overcoat with three yellow chevrons pointing down, on both of the jacket sleeves about elbow level. The front of the jacket has gold buttons in a vertical position from the collar to his waist. There is a black leather strap that is slung over his left shoulder and hangs down to his right waist. He is wearing a light brown Stetson hat with a wide brim all the way around the base and a yellow thin horizontal band at the base of the hat. He also wears white, thick leather gloves that come up past the wrist and over top of the cuffs of his coat. Johnson has a wide smile showing his teeth. He also has a thick black mustache. 

CAPTION: NPS ranger Shelton Johnson portraying a Buffalo Solider

CREDIT: NPS


RELATED TEXT:
Civilian agencies integrate slowly. In the 1960s, the National Park Service (NPS) starts hiring professional park rangers. One is Robert Stanton (below). He becomes the first African American park superintendent since Charles Young, and the first African American director of NPS. He works with Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc., to establish and develop this park.

↑ back to top

IMAGE: Circle of Influence

description. An upper body, circular portrait of Charles Young, an African American soldier, staring straight ahead towards the viewer. The edge of the circle is a light brown color.  Young is wearing a dress uniform and a peaked cap with leather bill. There is an emblem on the center middle of his hat which has an eagle in flight and a decorative circle above the eagle's head.  He is wearing a high neck collarless dress shirt underneath a dark khaki army jacket with a stiff high neck collar. There are two decorative center buttons on the front of his coat.  There are army dress uniform pins on both sides of his collar that read U.S.   The is light brown text arched above Young's head in the center of the photo reads Circle of Influence.  There is black text to the left of Young's portrait that reads Charles.  There is black text to the right of Young's portrait that reads Young. 

credit: National Afro American Museum and Cultural Center

↑ back to top

IMAGES and TEXT: Persevering Patriots

related texts. 

Persevering Patriots

Charles Young excelled as a military officer at a time when African Americans were excluded from most leadership positions in society. He endured racism, hardship, combat, injury, and malaria but always persevered. He hoped he could make a difference  and he did. He supported the careers of many officers who went on to break more barriers. One such person, Benjamin O. Davis Sr.  achieved what Young could not.  He became the first African American one star general in the U.S. Army. Davis’s son Benjamin O. Davis Jr. also achieved greatness. You will learn more about him below. 

image 1 of 5:  Colin Powell

DESCRIPTION: This is a color photograph of General Colin Powell dressed in his green service dress uniform. This was taken by a military photographer as his official military photo after he assumed command of the U.S. Forces Command. It shows his upper torso, facing forward and slightly to his left. He is wearing a white collared shirt with a black tie. On each shoulder, he wears four silver stars, and there is a brass button on the top of each shoulder board. He wears a brass U.S. pin on each of his upper lapels, a name tag above his right breast pocket, and five rows of colorful ribbons above his left breast pocket. Over the ribbons is pinned a silver and blue Combat Infantryman's badge. His hair is short and neat, and he has a slight smile on his face. Behind him hang the U.S. Flag, the Army Flag with combat streamers, and the U.S. Forces Command Flag.

CAPTION: A son of immigrants, Powell becomes the first African American to serve as chair of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and as secretary of state.

CREDIT: National Archives


IMAGE 2 of 5: Henry O. Flipper

DESCRIPTION:  Shown is a black and white photo of Henry O. Flipper, an African American male from chest up standing left facing and dressed in a gray military uniform. His hair is close to his head, parted on the left side, and his uniform has a closed double breasted jacket with a row of metal buttons on each side. The jacket includes shoulder tabs and light colored decorative thin ropes one hanging close to the top and the other on the right shoulder with round objects on the tassels hanging to the left.

CAPTION: The first African American graduate of the US Military Academy at West Point. He endured a controversial court-martial. President Clinton later pardons him.

CREDIT: National Archives


IMAGE 3 of 5: John Hanks Alexander

DESCRIPTION: Shown as a black and white portrait photo of John Hanks Alexander, an African American male. Mr Alexander is shown pictured from the chest up, standing, facing left and dressed in a gray military uniform. His uniform has a closed double-breasted jacket metal buttons. The jacket includes shoulder epaulettes and light colored decorative thin ropes draped and circular on the front of his jacket with one tassel left of top center.

caption. He mentors Young before moving to Wilberforce to start a military program. He dies soon after arrival. Young takes over his duties.

credit. University of Connecticut Libraries


image 4 of 5.  Benjamin O. Davis Junior

description.  This is a black and white photograph of Benjamin O. Davis Jr. He is wearing a light-colored deflated life vest that covers his chest with the collar looping down to mid chest level and then back up to both shoulders. Under the vest, he is wearing a dark-colored leather jacket. Under his jacket, he is wearing a collared shirt and a vertical, light colored neck tie. Davis is also wearing a headset with a chinstrap hanging down on his right side, down to his shoulder. A pair of goggles rest on his forehead below a helmet that covers the top and sides of his head. Davis has his right arm crossed over his left  in his lap as he looks left with a smirk on his face. 

caption. The fourth African American to graduate the US Military Academy at West Point and a decorated Tusk kee gee airman. President Clinton advances Lt. General Davis to the rank of four star general.

credit.  Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture


image 5 of 5. Barack Obama

description.  This color portrait photograph of the 44th President of the United States shows him from the mid chest up wearing a dark blue suit jacket, a white collared shirt and blue tie with white and red stripes. Mr. Obama is African American, his hair is very short and of uniform length. He wears an American Flag on his left lapel. Behind him to the left are partial images of two standing flags, the Flag of the United States as well as a flag that displays the presidential seal. The President is looking directly into the camera with a thoughtful, pleasant expression.


caption.  The first African American US president and commander in chief of the military. He proclaims Charles Young Buffalo Soldier National Monument in 2013.

credit. Library of Congress/Pete Souza

↑ back to top

IMAGES and TEXT: Cultivating Culture

related text

Cultivating Culture

Charles Young shared his love of music and literature wherever his career took him. He formed military bands at isolated posts and taught soldiers how to play. He and Ada hosted evenings of music and poetry throughout their lives. But Wilberforce, Ohio, was where their cultural life flourished.

The town was known for prominent leaders like Martin Delaney, who practiced medicine and worked for African American civil rights. Other leaders, like W.E.B. Du Bois and Hallie Q. Brown (both at right), followed him here. The town was also home to Laura Smith, who had sheltered travelers on the Underground Railroad. The Youngs bought her house because of this history.

Youngsholm became a hub for the arts and politics. The Youngs also made their home a place to mentor the next generation of African American leaders.


IMAGE 1 of 5:  Booker T. Washington

DESCRIPTION: This is a black and white portrait of Booker T. Washington. Washington is an African American man and founder of Tuskegee Institute. Washington is wearing a black un buttoned tuxedo jacket, a black vest, with a white shirt and bow tie. He is looking directly at the camera with one raised eyebrow.   Washington is crossing his legs. He holds an open book in his hand.

CAPTION: Founder of the Tuskegee  Institute, he said of Young,  Success is to be measured not so much by the position that one has reached as by the obstacles which he has overcome.

CREDIT: Library of Congress/C.E. Cheyne


IMAGE 2 of 5: W.E.B. Du Bois

DESCRIPTION: This image displays a black and white headshot portrait of W.E.B. Du Bois, an American sociologist and civil rights activist. Du Bois is staring away from the camera wearing a black un button tuxedo suit , black vest, white button up shirt, with a black bow tie. Du Bois is an African American man, has black hair balding hair and with a full black beard. 

CAPTION: A famed scholar, Du Bois asked,  "If Charles Young’s blood pressure was too high for combat duty, why was it not too high for him to be sent to the even more arduous duty in the swamps of West Africa?"

CREDIT: W E B Du Bois Library, University of Massachusetts Amherst


IMAGE 3 of 5: Ada Mills Young

DESCRIPTION: A black and white image of Ada Mills Young, the wife of Colonel Charles Young. Ada is an African American woman born in the late 19th Century. The image displays her as a young woman wearing a white laced scoop neck blouse, with a decorative multi flowered bouquet along the front center neckline.  Her hair is styled loosely in a bun on top of her head. She has soft facial features and soft eyes. She is gazing into the distance thoughtfully. Her neck is bare.   The background of the photo is plain. 

CAPTION: Raised and educated in San Francisco, California, Ada joins her husband as he travels the world. She also becomes a community leader in Wilberforce, Ohio.

CREDIT: National Afro American Museum and Cultural Center


IMAGE 4 of 5: Hallie Q. Brown

DESCRIPTION: A black and white portrait photograph of Hallie Q. Brown. Her body is positioned at a left angle and her head is facing slightly to her right side. She is wearing a dark buttoned jacket with decorative ruffled collared shawl draping over her shoulders. At the top of the shawl is pinned a light cluster of decorative fabric flowers. Her hair is neatly styled in a braided bun on the top of her head. On top of the bun is a decorative headband placed at an angle in her hair. She has tightly curled bangs ending in the middle of her forehead.  She is wearing short, thin, dangling earrings with a ball at the ends. She is looking into the camera with a gentle, thoughtful expression. The background is plain. 

CAPTION: A national leader in African American culture and  women’s voting rights. She also teaches at Wilberforce and frequents Youngsholm for political discussions and social events.

CREDIT: Central State University Archives


IMAGE 5 of 5: Paul Laurence Dunbar

DESCRIPTION: This black and white photograph is a standing portrait of Paul Laurence Dunbar. He is wearing a long double breasted suit coat with high, notched lapels and a high white tuxedo shirt. His hair is short and parted in the middle. Dunbar looks into the near distance with a serious, contemplative look on his face. 

CAPTION: This famous poet from Dayton  Ohio  often collaborates with Young on music and poetry. After he dies, Young leads efforts to erect a statue in his honor. 

CREDIT: Dayton Metropolitan Library, Paul Laurence Dunbar Collection

↑ back to top

IMAGE: Buffalo Soldiers

description. This black and white photo shows six rows of the Ninth U.S. Cavalry soldiers on the eve of their departure to the Philippines. The soldiers are positioned on a hill at the Presidio, a military base at the southernmost tip of the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco, California. The first row of soldiers kneel in the foreground while the remaining soldiers stand behind. The soldiers hold army carbines or short barreled rifles used exclusively in the cavalry. Most of the men are dressed in the dark army uniforms of the time, while several wear the newly issued light khaki uniforms that the army was transitioning to. All wear army campaign hats, with wide brims and solid dented tops. One soldier holds a swallow-tailed guidon in the last row marked with the number 9 for the 9th Cavalry. A cavalry guidon is a rectangular flag with a triangle portion removed from the end section. It was held at the front of the cavalry to direct troops into battle. A single white officer stands to the right of the troops in the front row.


caption, 9th regiment, ready to fight in the Philippines

caption,  Fort Huachuca Museum

↑ back to top

IMAGE: Robert Stanton

description. This photograph sits superimposed on image of the Buffalo soldiers in the Philippine War. Mister Stanton is standing, wearing a dark blue suit coat, a white shirt and a gold and blue striped tie. He is wearing a decorative pin on his left lapel and has a multi peaked white handkerchief in his left pocket. He is holding a large black and white historic photograph of Colonel Charles Young. 


  Describe image here

caption, Col. Young image held by ROBERT STANTON the first African American director of the National Park Service, 1997 to 2001

credit, N P S

↑ back to top

IMAGE and TEXT Family ties

DESCRIPTION A black and white photograph of Colonel Young's children, Charles Noel and Marie Aurelia, with an unidentified friend. The children are seated together on a dark colored horse's back. Marie is seated in front holding the harness trap for the horse. The friend is seated in the middle. Charles Noel is seated behind them. Marie is wearing a light colored dressed with light colored tights underneath. The arms of the dress are down to her wrists and the length of the dress is above her knee. Her legs are positioned on both sides of the horse, close to the horse's front legs. Her long hair is parted in the middle and split into even braids on both of her shoulders. The braids end on her mid-chest area. The friend in the middle is wearing a similar dress to Marie. The arms of her dress end above her elbow. She has her arms wrapped around Marie's waist. Her body is covered by Marie. Her legs are positioned her both sides of the horse's body. Her hair is short and loosely styled. Charles Noel is wearing medium-colored long pants and a light colored long collared shirt. His hair is trimmed closely to his head. His body is being covered by the friend in front of him. All the children are smiling and looking at the camera. The horse is wearing a facial harness. It has dark, thick straps connected over his snout, above his eyes, and jaw. His eyes are partially covered by large square blinders. There is another vertical strap that extends from his mouth to Marie’s hands. The horse’s ears are erect and pointed up. The horse is standing tall facing to the left of the photo. The children and horse are in front of a large barn with the barn door open to their right side. Behind them is a wooden fence with four horizontal slats connected by vertical fence post. They are standing on a grassy field with a clear sky. 

CAPTION Young's children with a friend

CREDIT National Afro American Museum and Cultural Center


RELATED TEXT 
A passion for service and learning, a talent for music and poetry, and a love of horses. Charles Young received these gifts from his parents, Gabriel and Arminta, and his maternal grandmother Julia. After the family settled in Ripley, Ohio, Gabriel started a livery business that provided horse-drawn transportation. He taught Charles how to care for horses and to play the piano —two skills that would serve him well.

Julia, who had been one of the first African American teachers in Kentucky, and Arminta tutored Charles. He graduated high school with honors at age 16. At the commencement ceremony, Charles gave an oration titled “Let There Be Light.”

Charles and Ada Young gave these same gifts to their children, Charles Noel and Marie Aurelia, and they shared their passion for service and equality with the world.

↑ back to top

IMAGES Wilberforce

IMAGE 1 of 2: University

DESCRIPTION This two dimensional black and white illustration shows a stately five story stone building with stone cornice decorated windows on each level. The central one third of the building is set forward from the remaining building with larger windows that span the third and fourth floors. At the top of this section there is peaked roof with an encased bell tower. The roof is dotted with dormer windows and chimneys that span the width of the building. The side view also has stone corniced windows on each level. The view includes a series of pathways winding through manicured grass leading to the building and extending away, possibly to other parts of the campus.


CAPTION wilberforce University As it looked in the early days when it was a college

CREDIT: University Library, UNC Chapel Hill


IMAGE 2 of 2: Students

DESCRIPTION black and white photograph shows nineteen Wilberforce students sitting in four rows. There are female and male students interspersed amongst each other.  In the first row students are sitting with arms resting in their laps. Their classmates stand behind them.  All are dressed in semi-formal attire, with the female students in dresses, blouses and skirts, and the male students are in dark suits and ties. They are posed in front of a university campus building. 


CAPTION wilberforce Students  Around 1900

CREDIT  National Afro-American Museum and Cultural Center

↑ back to top

Image Youngsholm porch

Description, This black and white photograph shows two men, a caucasian man, Samual Pearson and Charles Young sitting on the front porch steps at the Young's home in Wilberforce, Ohio. Both men sit casually and appear to be in conversation. They are leaning back and gazing outward. They are both wearing dress shirts and pants and are sitting side-by-side on a striped blanket. Mr. Samuels is wearing a light V neck sweater, while Colonel Young wears light suspenders and a bow tie. On the right there is a stone wall that supports the porch pillar. In the background is a wooden rocking chair and a young girl with curled ear length hair in a white dress with a black satin sash.


Caption, Youngsholm Porch Young relaxes with Samuel Pearson; they had served together in the Philippines. 

Credit, National Afro-American Museum and Cultural Center

↑ back to top

Images and text Welcome to Youngsholm

Image 1 of 2, Transom window

Description, This color photo shows a brass-framed, stained glass transom window from the Young's house. The glass is clear and decorated with a diamond in the middle, surrounded by a double oval pattern, and circles in each of the four corners, all bisected by vertical and horizontal lines.

Caption, Historic transom window from Youngsholm. Such windows indicated a prominent household in the community.

Credit, NPS and CHYO


Image 2 of 2, Omega Psi Phi window

Description, This is a color photograph of the Omega Psi Phi stained glass transom window over the front door of the house. It shows the crest in the center, which consists of a purple shield with the letters Omega Psi Phi over crossed swords, topped by a knight’s helmet, over a knight’s glove, surrounded by a green wreath on a white background. To the right and left of the crest in the center are alternating bans of purple and green vertical bands.

Caption, Omega Psi Phi window at Youngsholm. This fraternity of African American leaders protected the home and helped establish this national monument to Buffalo Soldiers and Charles Young.

Credit, NPS and Thomas Engberg


Related text,
Charles Young’s home is the center of activity for this national monument. We welcome you today and encourage you to visit often as we develop tours, programs, and other events.

↑ back to top

Image Barn at Youngsholm

Description, This black and white photo shows a large barn complex and a silo in the middle of a cornfield behind the Young's house. The main building is a large three-story gable barn, which is connected to a second smaller gable barn with a walkthrough. The front of the main barn has two large windows on the first floor as well as a large sliding access door. There are also two smaller windows on one side of the first floor. The main barn second floor has two smaller windows each on the front and side. The third floor has one small window on the front under a gable and one on the side. The storage silo is circular, constructed of wood, has a rounded roof, and is taller than the barns. There is tree line behind the barns in the distance.  

Caption,  The barn at Youngsholm 

Credit, National Afro-American Museum and Cultural Center

↑ back to top

Maps and text How to get here

Map 1 of 2: Nearby National Park Sites

Description, This small square map shows the area of south western Ohio around the Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers National Monument. The map also shows in green letters the two other National Park sites nearby. The map depicts major cities nearby as well as the major highways in and out of the area. The rivers are the only terrain features shown on this map. In the lower right corner of the map is an indicator showing north as well as a map scale in miles and kilometers.


Map 2 of 2: Detail of Wilberforce

Description, This small square map shows detail of the Wilberforce area around the Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers National Monument. The map includes Central State University, Wilberforce University, the National Afro-American Museum and Cultural Center, as well as the major roads in and out of the area. The main access road to the national monument, US Highway 42, runs diagonally through the map from the northeast to the southwest. In the upper left corner of the map is an indicator showing north as well as a map scale in miles and kilometers.


Related text, 
Youngsholm is in Wilberforce, OH, on US 42, one mile west of Wilberforce University and Central State University. Off-street parking is available.

↑ back to top

Text What to do

You can stop by Youngsholm at any time to view the outdoor historical markers and other information. 

• Take the cell phone tour or self-guided walking tour. 

• Tours of Youngsholm and other programs are usually available during the summer, otherwise infrequently. Opportunities are listed on the park’s Facebook page and website, or you can call the park for current information (details at far right). 

• Visit the National Afro-American Museum and Cultural Center. 

• Visit nearby National Park sites that share history with this site (see map above).

↑ back to top

Text Visiting safely

The park is on a US highway. Drive and walk cautiously. 

• Summers can be hot and humid. Bring water to drink, wear sun protection, and take frequent breaks. 

• Prevent insect bites and stings by wearing closed-toed shoes and using insect repellent. 

• In winter, sidewalks and steps can be slippery.

↑ back to top

Overview Accessibility

We strive to make our facilities, services, and programs accessible to all. For information call or check our website.

↑ back to top

Overview More Information

Emergencies call 911

More Information

Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers National Monument 

Address, PO Box 428 Wilberforce, OH 45384 

Phone, 937-352-6757

Website, www.nps.gov/chyo

Visit us on social media.

Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers National Monument is one of over 400 parks in the National Park System. Learn more about national parks at www.nps.gov.

National Park Foundation, Join the park community. 

www.nationalparks.org


↑ back to top