Buffalo National River
OVERVIEW: About this Audio-Described Brochure
Hello, and welcome to the audio-described version of Buffalo National River's official print brochure. Through text and audio descriptions of photos, illustrations, and maps, this version interprets the two-sided color brochure that visitors to Buffalo National River receive. The purpose of this brochure is to provide visitors with park highlights, trip planning information, and tools to navigate the park and its many access points. This audio version lasts about 53 minutes, which we have divided into 24 sections, as a way to improve the listening experience. Sections 1-11 cover the front of the brochure and include information regarding Ozarks' history, unique park landscapes, and wildlife. Sections 11-24 cover the back of the brochure which consists of a park map, recreational opportunities, and safety/emergency contact information.
OVERVIEW: Buffalo National River
Buffalo National River is a long and narrow National Park Service unit in the Ozarks of northern Arkansas. This national park unit covers approximately 95,000 acres along a wild, winding river corridor that flows from west to east for 135 miles.
This park, established on March 1, 1972, was America's first national river, serving as a model for similar National Park Service units to come. Each year, more than 1.5 million visitors come to enjoy the many recreational opportunities of Buffalo National River, including hiking, swimming, fishing, hunting, camping, paddling, wildlife observation, tours of historic areas, and much more. We invite you to come and listen for bugling elk. Feel the cool draft emerge from underground at the mouth of a cave. Go canoeing or rafting and experience the rush of adrenaline as you navigate a bouncy rapid. Take a hike and hear the crunch of fallen leaves under your feet. Tour a historic Ozark homestead, Native American bluff shelter, or zinc-mining ghost town and connect with those who were here before us. For those seeking to learn more about the park before their visit, accessible information is available on the park website at www.nps.gov/buff. Braille versions of certain trail guides and brochures are available at park visitor centers at Steel Creek, Tyler Bend, and Buffalo Point. To find out more about what resources might be available or to contact the park directly, visit the "Accessibility" and "More Information" sections at the end of this audio-described brochure.
OVERVIEW: Front Side of Brochure
The front of the brochure includes a large landscape photograph of the Buffalo River and surrounding forest wilderness taken from a high overlook. The forested hills roll into the distance beyond our view of the river. Several kayaks and canoes are "parked" on a gravel bar on the river's left bank, with people walking along the river's edge. The people and boats look tiny from this vantage point. This photograph covers the entire background on this side of the brochure. Overlain on top of this photograph are quotes and smaller photographs with written descriptions. Most photos are in color unless indicated black and white.
The various written descriptions correspond with photographs of a log cabin with heading "The Ozarks: A Wild Frontier," cave and karst features with heading "Karst Landscape: More than Meets the Eye," and various wild animals with heading "Ridges to River: A Mosaic of Habitats."
IMAGE and QUOTE: Paddling in the Park
DESCRIPTION: A color photograph of an expansive view of the winding, light blue Buffalo River and surrounding forested wilderness below, viewed from a high overlook. Canoes and kayaks are "parked" on a gravel bar on the river's left bank, and people are walking along the river's edge. The people and boats appear tiny from this vantage point. The forested hills roll far into the distance, and the river seemingly disappears into the trees as it bends to the right.
CAPTION: In the lower left corner of the photograph, a caption in small, white text reads: "Paddling, a popular pastime, is one of many recreational opportunities available in the park."
CREDIT: Kirstine Nichols
QUOTE & IMAGE: Ray R. Denoon
QUOTE: In large, italicized, dark blue font, a quote reads: "I used to take the path down past the end of the high bluff and wade the Buffalo to school. The teacher had to let us out when it rained, so we could get back across before the creek got too high." In small, non-italicized, dark blue font beneath the quote, text reads: "Mrs. Harry Primrose, Ponca, Arkansas."
DESCRIPTION: To the right of the large quote by Mrs. Harry Primrose is a black and white photograph of a man and a woman sitting on the edge of an old vehicle. The man is on the left, wearing overalls with the pant legs rolled up above his ankles. The woman is on the right, wearing a casual, ankle-length white dress with a collar and short sleeves. They look directly at the camera and are not smiling, but squinting with the sun in their eyes.
CAPTION: Beneath the black and white photograph of the man and woman is small, dark blue text that reads: "Ozark singer Ray R. Denoon and his wife, 1930s."
CREDIT: Vance Randolph / Library of Congress
IMAGE and TEXT: The Ozarks A Wild Frontier
DESCRIPTION: Color photograph of a single-story, unpainted log cabin with dovetailed, hand-hewn logs; a stone chimney; a tin roof; an enclosed, board and batten addition; a covered back porch. The cabin is perched on a grassy slope with trees surrounding.
CAPTION: In the lower, right-hand corner of the photograph is simple, white text that reads: “Villines Cabin, circa 1850, near Ponca. Copyright: Randy Forrester.”
IMAGE CREDIT: Randy Forrester
Beneath the photograph is a large, bold, white text heading that reads: “The Ozarks: A Wild Frontier.” Beneath the header is a paragraph of smaller, white text that reads:
Wild game—especially bear, beaver, otter, and bison,
prized for their skins—drew hunters and trappers to northwest Arkansas in the early 1800s. Steep ridges and narrow, frequently flooded valleys deterred most others, especially those who hoped to farm. In 1828 geographer Timothy Flint wrote that the river was “known to rise forty feet [in] perpendicular height.” By 1860 neighboring frontier states had drawn populations of over 100,000, yet only 15,000 people had settled in the Buffalo River valley. Most were subsistence farmers who built their rough log cabins in secluded locations.
DESCRIPTION: A vertically orientated picture of a violin, superimposed on the exitisting background. The base is tan, while the chin rest and neck are black.
CAPTION in small white text to the bottom left of the picture of the violin: Music is one among many artistic traditions carried to the Ozarks from northern Europe via Appalachia.
Photograph CREDIT: NPS
IMAGES and TEXT: Karst Landscape More than Meets the Eye
IMAGE DESCRIPTION: A rectangular close-up color photograph of a small rock bluff. There are heavily moss and grass covered rocks in the foreground in front of the bluff and at the top of the bluff. Small thin waterfalls of clear water are flowing off the top of the bluff onto the mossy rocks below.
CAPTION OF SMALL WHITE TEXT AT THE TOP RIGHT CORNER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH: Rainwater trickles into Clark Creek.
PHOTOGRAPH CREDIT: Eric Hunt
RELATED TEXT BELOW THE PHOTOGRAPH:
HEADER WRITTEN IN LARGE BOLD PLAIN WHITE FONT: Karst Landscape More than Meets the Eye
PARAGRAPH TEXT BELOW THE HEADER. WRITTEN IN MEDIUM SIZED PLAIN WHITE FONT:
Intermittent, curtain-like falls can happen along the Buffalo River when surface water runs off the edge of a bluff. Surface water can also create sinkholes, caves, and tunnels when it enters cracks in a bluff ’s soft rock layers (below). Acidified by carbon dioxide taken from the air and organic material picked up from the forest floor, the water slowly dissolves the rock. It forms pathways for underground streams and habitat for species that cannot survive elsewhere.
COMPUTER GENERATED INFOGRAPHIC IS LOCATED BELOW THE PARAGRAPH OF TEXT
INFOGRAPHIC DESCRIPTION: This graphic is in color and is a rectangular 3D depiction of a cross section of layers of rock. The top of the rectangle is green and hilly. There is a small stream that is labeled surface water. It flows to a black circle labeled sinkhole. The left of the rectangle is a gray rock bluff. There is water coming out of the top of the bluff labeled waterfall. The center of the rectangle is divided into 9 horizontal layers of various height, like layers of a cake. Each layer is given a different neutral color. These layers are labeled Sandstone, Shale, Limestone or Dolomite. There is no pattern to the placement of the layers. Sandstone is the largest layer and there is only one layer of dolomite at the very bottom. Vertically through the layers there is a depiction of water driving straight down from the surface to under the last layer of rock. This area is blue and labeled underground stream. There are 3 black horizontal ovals spaced throughout the layers of rock that are labeled caves.
CAPTION OF SMALL WHITE TEXT UNDER THE BOTTOM RIGHT CORNER OF THE INFOGRAPHIC: The park includes nearly 500 caves. Some are closed for recreational use or accessible by permit only.
IMAGES: Karst Creations
THREE PORTRAIT ORIENTATED PICTURES ARE SET CLOSE TOGETHER WITH HEADER TEXT ON THE TOP AND TITLE TEXT BELOW EACH PHOTOGRAPH.
HEADER TEXT IN BOLD WHITE PLAIN FONT: Karst Creations
IMAGE DESCRIPTION OF PHOTO FURTHEST LEFT 1 of 3:
A color photo taken from the bottom of a tall tan colored rock bluff. The top of the bluff can just be seen. It is a sunny day. There is a large waterfall flowing over the top of the bluff and hitting the bottom. There are green trees in the right foreground of the picture.
CAPTION BELOW THE PICTURE IN MEIDIUM SIZED WHITE FONT: Falls at Hemmed-in Hollow
PHOTO CREDIT: Drew Harris
IMAGE DESCRIPTION OF THE CENTER PHOTOGRAPH 2 0f 3: A close up color photograph of a large creek flowing over tan colored rock. A significant crack separates the rock into two sections. The creek flows from the left side of the picture into the crack, disappearing below. The background shows the bank of the creek covered in fallen orange leaves.
CAPTION BELOW THE PICTURE IN MEIDIUM SIZED WHITE FONT: Clark Creek goes underground
PHOTO CREDIT: Brian Emfinger
IMAGE DESCRIPTION OF PHOTO FURTHEST RIGHT 3 OF 3: A color photograph of a pool of water surrounded by rock. In the foreground of the picture, taking up 1/2 of the frame is a blue pool of water. The water is clear and rocks can be seen underneath. There are some green trees that can be seen overhanging the pool. Behind the water is a darkly colored rock bluff. Red can be seen in the rock, but the top of the bluff cannot be seen. There is a hole in the rock, near where it meets the water. Water is flowing out of that hole, creating a small waterfall that is flowing into the pool.
CAPTION BELOW THE PICTURE IN MEIDIUM SIZED WHITE FONT: Natural Bridge in Lost Valley
PHOTO CREDIT: Paul Caldwell
IMAGE and TEXT: Ridges to River A Mosaic of Habitats
DESCRIPTION: A cut-out photo of a large blue heron flying, flaps its broad wings over a green background. The forewing is a paler blue- gray with compact feathers, while the flight feathers are darker gray. It has a long orange beak with a dark brown crown on its light gray head with a curved “S” shaped neck. Its long dark legs extend out straight down.
CAPTION WRITTEN IN SMALL WHITE FONT SET ON A GREEN BACKGROUND ABOVE THE HERON: Great blue herons hunt along riverbanks and nest in tall trees.
PHOTOGRAPH CREDIT: Linda Sunderland
HEADER WRITTEN IN LARGE BOLD PLAIN WHITE FONT SET ON A GREEN BACKGROUND: Ridges to River A Mosaic of Habitats
PARAGRAPH TEXT BELOW THE HEADER WRITTEN IN MEDIUM WHITE FONT SET ON A GREEN BACKGROUND:
Hiking trails, unpaved roads, and the river are avenues through wildlife habitats. Glades, wetlands, and forests—blue ash and juniper, oak and hickory, box elder and river cane—support black bears and cottontails, squirrels and mink, migrating birds, collared lizards and turtles. Wildlife species native to the southeast, northeast, and southwest all thrive in the park’s varied terrain. Some, like the river otter and bobcat, are seldom seen. It’s also unlikely that you’ll see an Ozark big-eared bat. To help prevent the spread of the fungus that causes white nose syndrome, the caves where this endangered species lives are closed to visitors.
IMAGES and TEXT: Forest
HEADER WRITTEN IN MEDIUM BLACK FONT SET ON A WHITE BANNER IN MIDDLE OF COLUMN: Forest
RELATED TEXT WRITTEN IN SMALL WHITE FONT IN THE MIDDLE OF THE COLUMN:
Hardwoods like hickory, oak, beech, and maple grow throughout the Buffalo River valley.
IMAGE 1 of 12: Wild turkey
DESCRIPTION: A cut- out photograph of a large brown turkey stands facing the left over a green background. It has multiple layers of brown and white feathers with an overlay of bronze green feathers. It has a red head, a pointed white beak, and a red wattle. It has a long brown feather tail and is standing on pink legs.
SMALL WHITE FONT CAPTION SET ON A GREEN BACKGROUND TO THE LOWER LEFT OF THE TURKEY: Wild turkey
PHOTO CREDIT: DOUGLAS SCOBEL
IMAGE 2 of 12: American beech
DESCRIPTION: A close-up cut out photograph on a green background of American Beech tree leaves. There are about ten leaves on this branch. The leaves are a narrow oval shape with saw-tooth edges. Most of the leaves are yellow, with a smaller amount being orange and red.
SMALL WHITE FONT CAPTION BELOW THE LEAVES ON A GREEN BACKGROUND: American beech
CREDIT: KIMBERLY BOOTH
IMAGE 3 of 12: Trout lily
DESCRIPTION: A cut-out photograph on a green background of two trout lilies beginning to bloom. Each lily has two lush dark green leaves, with lighter green spots. Their flowers grow on long skinny stems. The flowers are a bright yellow, and about half of the long oval petals have opened up.
SMALL WHITE FONT CAPTION ON A GREEN BACKGROUND TO THE LEFT OF THE FLOWER: Trout lily
CREDIT: ANDREW BLOCK
IMAGE 4 of 12: American beech tree
DESCRIPTION: A slightly faded, tall American beech tree stands above us in the fall. It has a large thick trunk with white bark, and yellow and orange oval leaves on its long branches. The top of the tree fades out to a green background to showcase the image of the close up, cut out beech tree leaves.
SMALL WHITE FONT CAPTION AT BOTTOM OF THE TREE STUMP: American beech tree
CREDIT: JASON POLITTE
IMAGES and TEXT: Cave
HEADER WRITTEN IN MEDIUM BLACK FONT SET ON A WHITE BANNER: Cave
PARAGRAPH TEXT BELOW THE HEADER WRITTEN IN MEDIUM WHITE FONT SET ON A GREEN BACKGROUND:
Dark, cool, and relatively dry, caves let bats avoid predators, sleep during the day, hibernate in winter, and reproduce. The endangered Ozark big-eared bat lives in only a few areas of Oklahoma and Arkansas.
IMAGE 5 of 12: Ozark big-eared bat
DESCRIPTION: A partial side view of a furry gray bat with white fur around its face, under its chin, and on its chest perches with its brown wings folded back. The bat has small, circular black eyes, and large gray ears. The bat's mouth is closed, thin, and pink in color. Directly above the mouth is the bat's light gray, flat nose. The ears stand straight up from the top of the bat's head, are as long as the bat's body, have several horizontal ridges, and are iridescent gray. This color photograph of an Ozark big-eared bat is a cut-out and placed on a green background.
CAPTION WRITTEN IN SMALL WHITE FONT SET ON A GREEN BACKGROUND: Ozark big-eared bat
CREDIT: JOHN ALTRINGHAM
IMAGE 6 of 12: Crystal
DESCRIPTION: Four rusty orange and cream colored sparkling crystal formations hang vertically from a horizontal cream colored crystal. The crystal stalactites are irregular in shape and approximately two feet in length. The opaque crystal formations have jagged edges with lighter orange and cream colored crystals towards the top and center of the formations transitioning to a darker orange color on the edges. This color photograph of a crystal formation is cut-out placed on a green background.
CAPTION WRITTEN IN SMALL WHITE FONT SET ON A GREEN BACKGROUND: Crystal, Fitton Cave
IMAGE 7 of 12: Cave salamander
DESCRIPTION: A bright orange slender salamander, viewed from above, covered in many small, black spots all over its body. Two, half-open, black eyes protrude from the top of the head. Three legs are easily visible. The front right leg is bent at a right angle at the elbow with three visible toes pointed straight ahead. Two back legs, one on each side of its body are of its body are positioned just above the tail and bent downward at the knee to a foot with four toes. The salamander's slightly shiny body is curved with its head to the right and its whip-like tail curling back towards the back right leg. The tail tapers to a tip with the black dots on the tail becoming smaller in size towards the tip of the tail. This color photograph of a cave salamander is cut-out on a green background.
CAPTION WRITTEN IN SMALL WHITE FONT SET ON A GREEN BACKGROUND: Cave salamander
CREDIT: TODD PIERSON
IMAGE 8 of 12: Wood frog
DESCRIPTION: A side view of a small light gray frog with a light tan neck and stomach sits with its back legs folded under it and its front legs extended in an upright position. The left side of the frog is visible. Its eye is a black circle protruding from the top of its head with a solid dark gray patch of skin extending from the eye down towards the front left leg in an irregular triangle shape. A thick white line on the frog's skin can be seen directly under the black patch and extends to the front of the frog's mouth and end of its nose. A black line from the tip of the short nose is extended back to the edge of the eye. A tan line runs from the left shoulder of the frog down its back. Dark gray horizontal bands can be seen on the frogs back left leg. Two web-like toes are visible on the front left leg and three toes are visible on the right foot. The skin of the frog appears relatively smooth. This color photograph of a wood frog is cut-out on a green background.
CAPTION WRITTEN IN SMALL WHITE FONT SET ON A GREEN BACKGROUND: Wood frog
CREDIT: MELVILLE OSBORNE
IMAGES and TEXT: River
HEADER WRITTEN IN MEDIUM BLACK FONT SET ON A WHITE BANNER: River
PARAGRAPH TEXT BELOW THE HEADER WRITTEN IN MEDIUM WHITE FONT SET ON A GREEN BACKGROUND:
Smallmouth bass, favored by anglers, thrive in the Buffalo’s swift-moving waters. River cane colonizes wetland areas.
IMAGE 9 of 12: Rocky Mountain elk
DESCRIPTION: A male Rocky Mountain elk is standing in short brown grass while turned away from the camera and with his head turned towards the right. The tan and cream colored furry butt and stubby tail faces the camera. The elk's long back legs extend straight down from the haunches with light tan fur. The leg fur transitions to dark brown in color towards the hoof. The elk's right eye is looking towards the camera and is black in color. The short fur on the elk's face is dark brown and the long fur on the neck of the elk is dark brown too. His mouth is closed and his black snout appears slightly shiny. The elk's tall antlers appear dark brown at the base transitioning to a lighter gray color at the points. Each antler has six points on each side. This color photograph of an elk is a cut-out on a green background.
CAPTION WRITTEN IN SMALL WHITE FONT SET ON A GREEN BACKGROUND: Rocky Mountain elk
CREDIT: PETER KEFALI
IMAGE 10 of 11: River otter and river cane
DESCRIPTION: A side view of a brown river otter on a gravel bar, standing on four legs, facing the left, while pulling on the tail of a fish. The river otter's fur is slicked down and shiny on its lower back, near the base of its tail from reflected sunlight. The tail is not visible. The rest of the otter's body looks dark brown and the face of the otter is dark with undefined features. The fish in the otter's mouth is laying on its side with its white underside exposed. The sides of the fish are dark green. There is a patch of red blood on the tail of the fish, near the otter's mouth. A thick stand of green, slightly blurred, river cane is in the background and a thin layer of water can be seen in the foreground.
CAPTION WRITTEN IN SMALL WHITE FONT SET ON A GREEN BACKGROUND: River otter, River cane
RIVER OTTER CREDIT: THY BUN
RIVER CANE CREDIT: NPS
IMAGE 11 of 11: River cooter
DESCRIPTION: A front view of a turtle perched on a brown log with its head and neck extended from its shell and looking to its right side. The turtles two front legs are also extended and and angled away from its head. The black head has two thick yellow lines extending from the mouth of the turtle down the neck. The tip of the turtle's pointed nose reflects sunlight. Delicate vertical yellow lines can also be seen on the turtle's legs extending from the top of the legs to the claws. The shell is bright yellow on the bottom, below the neck. A small portion of the top of the shell is visible on the turtles left side. The top of the shell appears gray in color with a thin yellow line on the edge of the shell. This color photograph of a turtle is a cut-out on a green background.
CAPTION WRITTEN IN SMALL WHITE FONT SET ON A GREEN BACKGROUND: River cooter
CREDIT: JOHN P. HAYES
OVERVIEW: Back Side of Brochure
This side of the brochure is largely composed of a green map of Buffalo National River. The river is depicted in its entirety, winding from west to east and taking up the entire center of this side of the brochure. Roads are highlighted in white. Points of interest and river access points are also highlighted. The boundary of the park is outlined, as well as the boundary of the designated Wilderness areas in the park. The bottom and the top of the brochure contain text and picture elements. These texts review things to do, safety, and contact information.
IMAGES and TEXT: Wilderness Why Protect It?
From left to right, there is a photograph, a text element and then a collage of 4 photographs.
IMAGE DESCRIPTION OF PHOTO FURTHEST LEFT 1 of 5: A White man on saddle on the back of a white horse, standing in front of a gray rock bluff that is peeking out of immense green foliage. The man holding the reins to the horse. The horse's head is held high. The man is wearing blue jeans, a long sleeved white shirt and a wide brimmed white hat. His face is out of focus.
CAPTION UNDER THE PICTURE IN SMALL BLACK PLAIN TEXT: Riders on horseback use park trails in all seasons.
PHOTO CREDIT: Jason Dalby
TEXT LOCATED TO THE RIGHT OF IMAGE 1:
HEADER WRITTEN IN LARGE BOLD BLACK PLAIN FONT : Wilderness Why Protect It?
TEXT BELOW HEADER WRITTEN IN MEDIUM SIZED BLACK PLAIN FONT:
Congress has protected 36,000 acres of Buffalo National River as wilderness under the 1964 Wilderness Act. Preserving the Ozark landscape and its rare habitats fosters species diversity. It also allows people who venture into the designated wilderness to experience astonishing beauty, rare solitude, and challenges of a greater magnitude than those encountered in the park’s tamer areas.
TO THE RIGHT OF THE TEXT IS A PHOTO COLLAGE OF 4 PHOTOS
IMAGE DESCRIPTION OF PHOTO ON THE TOP LEFT OF THE PHOTO COLLAGE, IMAGE 2 of 5: A cut-out color photograph of a small bright blue bird perched on a light brown branch. Its rump is facing the camera and it is looking over its shoulder towards the camera. The bird's wing is black, as is its beak. The bird's feet are clenching on the branch.
CAPTION TO THE SIDE OF IMAGE 2 IN SMALL BLACK PLAIN TEXT: Indigo bunting
PHOTO CREDIT: Alan Gutsell
IMAGE DESCRIPTION OF PHOTO ON THE BOTTOM LEFT OF THE PHOTO COLLAGE, IMAGE 3 of 5: A color photograph of a landscape; aerial view looking down on a river flowing from the foreground to the horizon. The river is flanked by many green trees. A pretty pink sunset can be seen on the horizon.
CAPTION UNDER IMAGE 3 IN SMALL BLACK PLAIN TEXT: Sunset on the Buffalo River near Tyler Bend
PHOTO CREDIT: Mary Liz Austin
IMAGE DESCRIPTION OF PHOTO ON THE BOTTOM MIDDLE OF THE PHOTO COLLAGE, IMAGE 4 of 5: A cut-out color photograph of a racoon. It is facing the camera, with black coloring around its eyes, small white tipped pointed ears, and brown body. A splash of white fur is round its pointed black nose. Its long fingered feet and hands can be seen, along with its black and tan alternative ringed tail.
CAPTION ON TOP OF IMAGE 4 IN SMALL BLACK PLAIN TEXT: Raccoon
PHOTO CREDIT: Matt Coady
IMAGE DESCRIPTION OF PHOTO ON THE BOTTOM RIGHT OF THE PHOTO COLLAGE, IMAGE 5 OF 5: A color photograph of a high thin rugged gray rock outcropping, surrounded by an aerial view of green trees and extending green landscape. A sliver of a river can be seen to the left.
CAPTION UNDER IMAGE 5 IN SMALL BLACK PLAIN TEXT: The Narrows
PHOTO CREDIT: Jeff Roses
MAP and TEXT: Buffalo River Watershed Surface and Groundwater
THIS COMPONENT INCLUDES A SMALL MAP, ON THE LEFT, A PICTURE, BELOW THE MAP, AND A TEXT ELEMENT TO THE RIGHT
MAP DESCRIPTION: This is a large scale light green map of northwest Arkansas. 11 towns and cities are labeled with a name and a yellow dot. The boundary of the Buffalo River is highlighted in a dark shade of green; it is a relatively small area directly around the Buffalo River stretching west to east 135 miles. A medium shade of green highlights the Buffalo River Watershed; it covers large stretches of land beyond the river.
The map identifies many roads moving in multiple directions, using orange lines and highway numbers.
DESCRIPTION OF IMAGE DIRECTLY BELOW MAP: A cut-out color drawing of a side view of an Ozark Bass. It is light brown, with a lighter under belly, and black speckles all over. Its visible eye is large and red. The bass has fins along its top and on its bottom. It also has a tail. The tail it tapered where it connects to the body and expands into a triangle like shape. The tail and fins are slightly darker brown in color.
CAPTION TO THE LEFT OF PHOTO IN SMALL BLACK FONT: Ozark bass
PHOTO CREDIT: Joseph Tomelleri
TEXT ELEMENT TO THE RIGHT OF MAP
HEADER IN BOLD BLACK PLAIN FONT: Buffalo River Watershed Surface and Groundwater
PARAGRAPH OF TEXT BELOW HEADER IN MEDIUM SIZED BLACK PLAIN FONT:
Small streams and creeks carry surface water from uplands to the river, which drains a watershed (left) that extends far beyond park boundaries.
Not all surface water flows directly to the river. Much of it, including some from beyond the surface watershed, percolates downward into the limestone bedrock. Eventually this groundwater, too, finds its way to the Buffalo.
MAP: Buffalo National River
DESCRIBING: The map is a horizontal rectangular road atlas type map detailing the area around Buffalo National River. The river flows and winds from west to east for 135 miles in northwest Arkansas and through the center of the map. The map is laid over a green background.
Most of the backside of the brochure is a green shaded 2D map of Buffalo National River and the land directly around it. The total distance described in this map is approximately 8,250 square miles. The map is oriented with North at the top.
The map shows the entire Buffalo National River Boundary as a long thin blocky medium green shaded area that stretches 135 miles west to east. In the center of the medium green shading is a winding blue line that represents the Buffalo River. The Buffalo National River is visually divided into three major districts, with the western end of the Buffalo River labeled as the Upper, the central section of the Buffalo River labeled as the Middle, and the eastern end of the Buffalo River labeled as the Lower. On the far western side in the Upper district, are two darker green shaded sections. They are labeled Upper Buffalo Wilderness and Ponca Wilderness. On the far eastern side in the Lower district, is one darker green shaded section labeled Lower Buffalo Wilderness.
The park contains an abundance of paved and unpaved roads, trails, ranger stations, historic homesteads, bluffs, parking, and campgrounds that are all identified with labels and icons. The many river boat launches are highlighted with bright blue text boxes.
Outside of the identified park boundaries, large sections of the map show many nearby towns and the many roads and highways that can be used to navigate to different sections of the river.
On the far northeastern side of the map, a river extends outside of the eastern boundary of Buffalo National River. It is a thick blue winding line labeled White River. The White River extends to the east, terminating at the edge of the map. It also extends to the north, terminating in the Bull Shoals Lake at the northern edge of the map, shown as a labeled irregular blue oval with jagged edges.
The Buffalo River first appears on the map in the southwest corner outside of the Buffalo National River Boundary. It winds from west to east, entering the park at the Upper Buffalo Wilderness and terminating on the eastern side of the map as it meets with the White River.
ROADS OVERVIEW: Many roads are identified on the map both in and outside of the shown park boundary. Highways are depicted as bold, solid white lines with circular labels with black numbers inside. Lesser paved roads are depicted as thin, solid white lines. Unpaved roads are depicted as thin, dashed white lines. Outside of the park boundary, in northwestern most section of the map is the town of Harrison, the largest town near Buffalo National River. Highways 43, 7, 65, and 62/412 intersect here. Heading southwest for 25 miles along Highway 43 leads to Ponca in the Upper District. Heading south for 15 miles on Highway 7 leads to Pruitt Landing in the Upper District. Heading south/southeast for 35 miles on Highway 65 leads to Grinders Ferry and Tyler Bend in the Middle District. Heading east on Highways 62/412 for 28 miles and then south/southeast on Highway 14 for 15 miles leads to Buffalo Point and Dillards Ferry in the Lower District.
UPPER DISTRICT: The western third of the Buffalo River, which comprises approximately 41 twisting west to east river miles, is labeled with a dark green text box and white, capitalized letters that say "Upper" to signify the park's Upper District. This label is located below the river on the map, and dark green arrows extend horizontally from the left and right sides of the label toward the westernmost access point at Boxley Bridge and toward the eastern end of the Upper District at Carver. Beneath the dark green label and extended arrows is a description in small, dark green text that reads: "Upstream from Pruitt Landing, experienced kayakers and canoeists find challenging floats starting in early spring."
Below the national river boundary is a large, light green shaded rectangle that says "Ozark National Forest" in thin, capitalized, dark gray text. The shaded national forest area extends southward along a horizontal line beneath Buffalo National River's Upper District.
Roadways that cross the Buffalo River in the Upper District are: Highway 21 at Boxley Bridge, Highway 74 at Ponca, Erbie Campground Road at Erbie, Highway 7 at Pruitt, Hasty Cutoff Road at Hasty, and Highway 123 at Carver.
Beginning at the upper, westernmost boundary of Buffalo National River, we have a dark green shaded space on both sides of the river labeled "Upper Buffalo Wilderness" in thin, capitalized, black text. As we move downstream (eastward), the river, drawn as a medium blue line, approaches Highway 21, which is depicted as a narrow, white, curvy line traveling north to south. Near Highway 21, the dark green wilderness shading ends and the light green national river shading begins. Where Highway 21 crosses the Buffalo River is a dark blue dot labeled Boxley Bridge, a river access point. The river flows in a northeastward direction from here, generally following the south side of Highway 43, which is depicted as a narrow, white line that intersects Highway 21 to the south and then travels approximately 25 miles north/northeast to the town of Harrison. 6.1 miles downstream from Boxley Bridge and near the intersection of Highways 43 and 74 is a dark blue dot labeled Ponca, a river access point that also has hiking/horseback riding trailheads. From this point, Highway 43 meanders north as the river continues winding east/northeast, and Highway 74 travels from the town of Ponca in the west to the town of Jasper approximately 15 miles to the east. 2 miles downstream from Ponca is a black dot with small, italicized black text that says "Roark Bluff," and another .6 miles downstream is a dark blue dot labeled Steel Creek, a river access point that also has a primitive campground, hiking/horseback riding trailheads, a ranger station, and drinking water. Just downstream from Steel Creek we enter another dark green shaded area labeled "Ponca Wilderness" in thin, capitalized, black text. The river winds through the Ponca Wilderness for 8 miles past black dots labeled Big Bluff and Hemmed-in Hollow on river left before the next blue dot labeled Kyles Landing, a river access that also has a primitive campground, hiking trailheads, and drinking water. 5.7 miles downstream from Kyles Landing is a blue dot labeled Erbie, a river access that also has a primitive campground and hiking/horseback riding trailheads. 5.4 miles downstream from Erbie is a blue dot labeled Ozark, a river access that also has a primitive campground, hiking/horseback riding trailheads, and drinking water. 2.1 miles downstream from Ozark is a blue dot labeled Pruitt Landing, a river access that also has hiking/horseback riding trailheads. Highway 7, depicted as a thin white line that connects the town of Harrison to the north and the town of Jasper to the south, crosses the Buffalo River here. 7 miles downstream from Pruitt Landing is a blue dot labeled Hasty, a river access point. 4 miles downstream from Hasty is a blue dot labeled Carver, a river access point that also has a primitive campground and drinking water.
MIDDLE DISTRICT: The middle third of the Buffalo River, which comprises approximately 48 twisting river miles, is labeled with a dark green text box and white, capitalized letters that say "Middle" to signify the park's Middle District. This label is located above the river on the map, and dark green arrows extend horizontally from the left and right sides of the label toward the western end of the Middle District at Carver and toward the eastern end of the Middle District at Maumee. Beneath the dark green label and extended arrows is a description in small, dark green text that reads: "Downstream from Carver, the river is mostly calm and heavily used, with some difficult stretches."
Roadways that cross the Buffalo River in the Middle District include: Hwy. 65 at Grinders Ferry.
Beginning at the western end of the Middle District at Carver, we have the Gene Rush Wildlife Management Area (managed by the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission) that borders the southern boundary of Buffalo National River for approximately 15 river miles to Richland Creek. Gene Rush WMA is shaded in a very faint green color. 6.8 miles downstream from Carver is a blue dot labeled Mt. Hersey, a river access point. About 7.5 miles downstream from Mt. Hersey are two black dots: the first is labeled The Narrows (The Nars) and the second is labeled Skull Bluff. 1 more mile downstream is a blue dot labeled Woolum, a river access point that also has a primitive campground and hiking/horseback riding trailheads. 11.1 miles downriver from Woolum is a blue dot labeled Baker Ford, a river access point. 4.2 miles downstream from Baker Ford is a blue dot labeled Tyler Bend, a river access point that also has a campground, hiking trailheads, the park’s visitor center, and drinking water. 1.4 miles downstream from Tyler Bend is a blue dot labeled Grinders Ferry, a river access point. This is where Hwy. 65, depicted as a solid white line connecting the town of Harrison to the north and the town of Marshall to the south, crosses over the Buffalo River. 4.2 miles downstream from Grinders Ferry is a yellow dot labeled Gilbert, a town with a river access and hiking trailheads. 11.8 miles downstream from Gilbert are two blue dots labeled North Maumee (on the north side of the river) and South Maumee (on the south side of the river).
Buffalo National River has additional points of interest located off of the river corridor within the Middle District. Collier Homestead is a trailhead located between Hwy. 65 and the Tyler Bend Visitor Center. A portion of this trail, which features a preserved Ozark homestead, hardwood forest, and sweeping overlooks of the Buffalo River and Calf Creek valleys, will soon be ABA-compliant and accessible.
LOWER DISTRICT: The eastern third of the Buffalo River, which comprises approximately 43 twisting river miles, is labeled with a dark green text box and white, capitalized letters that say "Lower" to signify the park's Lower District. This label is located below the river corridor on the map, and dark green arrows extend horizontally from the left and right sides of the label toward the western end of the Lower District at Maumee and toward the eastern end of the Lower District at Buffalo City, where the Buffalo River flows into the White River. Beneath the dark green label and extended arrows is a description in small, dark green text that reads: "Unless you intend to continue into the Lower Buffalo Wilderness, take out at Rush Landing."
Roadways that cross the Buffalo River in the Lower District are: Highway 14 at Dillards Ferry.
Beginning at North Maumee, a river access point marked by a dark blue dot, the river flows north for less than a half mile and bends to the east at South Maumee, also marked with a dark blue dot. South Maumee, a river access point has a primitive campground and hiking available nearby. The river then bends back to the south and east for 4.7 miles and is marked with a dark blue dot labeled Spring Creek. Spring Creek is a river access point with a primitive campground and hiking available nearby. At Spring Creek the river bends and meanders to the north for 4.6 miles to a river access point marked with a dark blue dot called Dillards Ferry, where hiking is also available. At Dillards Ferry Highway 14, depicted as a thin white line that connects to the town of Yellville to the north and by way of Highway 27 to Marshall to the south, crosses the Buffalo River here. 1.5 miles to the west of Dillards Ferry is the Buffalo Point river access point marked with a dark blue dot. Buffalo Point is labeled with developed campground, drinking water, and interpretive trail access. From Buffalo Point the river runs north, but bends to the east and west four times for 7.5 miles to a dark blue dot labeled Rush. Rush, a river access point, is labeled with a primitive campground, drinking water, and interpretive trail access nearby. From Rush the river flows generally to the west, but makes a drop to the south through a series of approximately twelve bends for 24.4 miles to another river, Buffalo City and the White River. Buffalo City is labeled with a yellow dot and the White River is depicted as another medium blue line running from near the top right corner or northwest portion of the map to the upper left side or eastern side of the map. 4.5 miles upstream from the White River, on the east side of the Buffalo River, is a black dot with small, italicized black text that says "Elephant Head Rock." A dark green shaded space on both sides of the river between Rush and the White River labeled "Lower Buffalo Wilderness" in thin, capitalized, black text.
In the upper left-hand corner of the map sits the key, a vertical element with text and symbols. At the top of the element is an outline of a thick black circle with an arrow inside that points up. Above the circle in small black font is written north. To the left of the circle is the map scale, a horizontal line that is labeled 0-5 miles.
Below this is a list of icons and definitions, all in small plain black text unless otherwise identified.
Icon description: Rectangular blue box – Text: River Access Point.
Small blue plain Text: Distances between river access points are shown on the diagram below. Average floating time at “ample floating level” is about two miles per hour.
Icon description: Black square box containing a white outline of a glass
Text: Drinking water
Icon Description: Black square box containing a white outline of a stick figure moving arms and legs, wearing a backpack and holing a walking stick.
Icon Description: Black square box containing a white outline of a stick figure wearing a backpack and standing before an outline of an angled sign.
Text: Interpretive Trail
Icon Description: Black square box containing a white outline of a building with a flag on top.
Text: Information station
Icon Description: Black square box containing a white outline of a horse and rider.
Text: Horse camp
Icon description: Black square box containing a white outline of a triangle tent
Icon description: Black outline of a triangle tent
Text: Primitive campsite
Icon description: A small white square.
Text: Historic Site
Icon Description: Dashed horizontal line
Text: Unpaved road
Icon description: Dark green shading
Text: Wilderness area
Icon Description: Medium green shading
Text: Buffalo National River Authorized Area
Text: Private property exists within the authorized area. Please respect owners’ rights.
Header Text in small red plain font: Warning
Text: Locally heavy rains cause rivers and streams to rise rapidly. Pick campsites that allow an escape route. Do not dive or jump into the river. Swim only in clear, calm water and check below the surface for submerged objects.
TEXT: Distance between access points on the Buffalo National River
This component shows the distances between the primary river access points on the Buffalo National River, oriented toward the flow of the river, from west to east, with the first access point listed on the left. Direction of flow is labeled from left to right.
The component is a long, bold, dark blue, straight, horizontal line that stretches across the bottom of the brochure. Along this line are 22 labeled waypoints marked by blue "teardrop" shapes, spaced apart at a variety of distances, each with a small blue text box with the name of the corresponding river access point written in simple white text inside. Sometimes the access points are on the north side of the river (above the long, blue line), and sometimes they are on the south side (below the long, blue line), which will be noted below as (South) or (North):
Boxley Bridge (South) to Ponca (North), 6.1 miles
Ponca (North) to Steel Creek (South), 2.6 miles
Steel Creek (South) to Kyles Landing (South), 8 miles
Kyles Landing (South) to Erbie (South), 5.7 miles
Erbie (South) to Ozark (South), 5.4 miles
Ozark (South) to Pruitt Landing (North), 2.1 miles
Pruitt Landing (North) to Hasty (South), 7 miles
Hasty (South) to Carver (North), 4 miles
Carver (North) to Mt. Hersey (North), 6.8 miles
Mt. Hersey (North) to Woolum (North), 8.5 miles
Woolum (North) to Baker Ford (North), 11.1 miles
Baker Ford (North) to Tyler Bend (South), 4.2 miles
Tyler Bend (South) to Grinders Ferry (South), 1.4 miles
Grinders Ferry (South) to Gilbert (North), 4.2 miles
Gilbert (North) to North Maumee (North), 11.8 miles
Gilbert (North) to South Maumee (South), 11.8 miles
North Maumee (North) to Spring Creek (South), 4.7 miles
South Maumee (South) to Spring Creek (South), 4.7 miles
Spring Creek (South) to Dillards Ferry (South), 4.6 miles
Dillards Ferry (South) to Buffalo Point (North), 1.5 miles
Buffalo Point (North) to Rush Landing (North), 7.5 miles
Rush Landing (North) to Buffalo City (North), 24.4 miles
Buffalo City (North) to Norfolk, 11 miles
IMAGE DESCRIPTION: A person in a blue kayak wearing a blue life jacket and holding a black paddle with yellow blades floats down a murky, green stretch of river from right to left. The paddlers turns their head to the left as though looking at something on the shore. The far river bank is strewn with large, jagged, gray and white boulders with a wooded slope leading from the water's edge to a sheer stone cliff.
CAPTION: Small, simple, black text overlain on the top left corner of the image reads: "Kayaker working the spring flow."
CREDIT: Very small, capitalized black text directly beneath the caption reads "Julie Sisler Steiner."
HEADER WRITTEN IN SMALL TO MEDIUM BOLDED FONT IN BLACK SET ON A LIGHT GREEN BACKGROUND: Hiking
PARAGRAPH TEXT IN SMALL TO MEDIUM BLACK FONT: Trails are open year-round. Find trail maps at Tyler
Bend Visitor Center and Steel Creek and Buffalo Point ranger stations. Some short trails are those at Lost Valley, Steel Creek, Tyler Bend, and Buffalo Point. The Ponca and Rush trails are more difficult. In hunting season use extra caution and wear bright clothing.
TEXT: Horseback Riding
HEADER WRITTEN IN SMALL TO MEDIUM SIZED BOLDED BLACK FONT SET ON A GREEN BACKGROUND: Horseback Riding
PARAGRAPH TEXT IN SMALL TO MEDIUM BLACK FONT: Use abandoned roads, shoulders, and designated yellow-blazed trails in both the Ponca Wilderness and Lower Buffalo Wilderness, where a loop trail takes you from Hathaway Horse Camp to Cow Creek, from Cow Creek along the river to Cook Hollow, and back to Hathaway Horse Camp.
Header written in small to medium bold font in black set on a light green background reads "Paddling." Paragraph text in small to medium black font reads: "Park-approved concessioners rent canoes, kayaks, rafts, and johnboats and provide for all your needs except personal gear and food. Listen carefully to their advice about how to get over rapids and down the river. They also offer guided johnboat fishing trips on the middle and lower river, and shuttle service for paddlers and hikers."
Header written in small to medium bold font in black set on a light green background reads "Safety." Paragraph text in small to medium black font reads: "Each adult paddler is required to have an easily accessible US Coast Guard approved life jacket in their vessel. Children under 13 are required to wear approved life jackets at all times when floating the river.
• An inner tube is a vessel.
• The park recommends tube trips no longer than 1.5 miles.
• Know your limits, plan ahead, and prepare.
• Glass containers and Styrofoam are not allowed on the river.
• Secure cooler lids and all gear to your boat to prevent contents from spilling into the river.
• If you capsize, stay on the upstream side of your vessel with your feet in front of you so you cannot be pinned between your vessel and rocks or other obstacles.
• Plan to manage human waste and refuse. See our website or speak to a concessioner or ranger for sanitation requirements.
• For firearms regulations check our website."
SMALL TO MEDIUM BOLDED FONT IN BLACK SET ON A LIGHT GREEN BACKGROUND: Accessibility
PARAGRAPH TEXT IN SMALL TO MEDIUM BLACK FONT: We strive to make our facilities, services, and programs accessible to all. For information go to a visitor center, call, ask a ranger, or check our website.
OVERVIEW: More Information
SMALL TO MEDIUM SIZED BOLDED BLACK FONT SET ON A GREEN BACKGROUND: MORE INFORMATION
PARAGRAPH TEXT IN SMALL TO MEDIUM BLACK FONT:
ADDRESS: Buffalo National River, 402 N. Walnut St., Suite 136, Harrison, AR 72601
Buffalo National River is one of over 400 parks in the National Park System. To learn more visit www.nps.gov.
SMALL TO MEDIUM SIZED BLACK FONT SET ON A GREEN BACKGROUND: EMERGENCIES: call 911 or Midwest Regional Ozark Communication Center (MROCC) at 1-888-692-1162 24-hour park dispatch
IMAGE: Canoe and Wildflower Collage
IMAGE DESCRIPTION: A collage of three images in the bottom right hand corner of the back side of the brochure. The larger background image of the collage shows two red canoes with two paddlers each paddling downriver from right to left through a clear, blue-green pool. We stand on a gravel bar looking across the river. A naturally-streaked stone cliff of gray, black, and pink hugs the opposite riverbank, and green trees adorn the top of the cliff. The top of the image fades into the brochure's light green background. Overlay at the top of the background photograph is a cutout of a wooden canoe paddle lying horizontally with the paddle blade on the left and the handle on the right. The blade and the handle are a lighter brown color, and the paddle shaft is dark brown. In the lower left corner of the collage's background image is a cutout of two bright red, star-shaped wildflowers, each with five forked petals.
CAPTION: Above the canoe paddle in small, black text is a caption that reads "Canoe Paddle." Against the stone cliff in the background image of the collage is a caption in small, black text that reads: "Canoes at Painted Bluff." To the right side of the bright red wildflowers is a caption in small, black text that reads: "Fire pink."
CREDIT: Beneath the caption that reads "Canoe paddle" is smaller, capitalized black text that reads "NPS." Beneath the caption that reads "Canoes at Painted Bluff" is smaller, capitalized black text that reads "Terra Fondriest." Beneath the caption that reads "Fire pink" is smaller, capitalized text that reads "Dennis Mott."